means any activity involving the retail sale of medical cannabis or medical cannabis products from a dispensary.


420 is a code-term that refers to the consumption of cannabis, especially smoking cannabis around the 4:20 pm.  420 Day is celebrated across the world by cannabis consumers on April 20.  The term 420 originated in the 1960's at San Rafael, California, where a group of students calling themselves the Waldos congregated after school at to smoke marijuana at 4:20pm.

The term 420 is now used worldwide and was even adopted in the name of pro-marijuana legislation under California Senate Bill 420.

In California and Nevada, a 420 Evaluation by a doctor is required before a patient can buy medical marijuana.  The California Board of Medicine allows patients to complete a 420 evaluation via Telemedicine, which is process for remote health care provided through the internet.

A 420 Evaluation is a medical interview conducted by a licensed physician, that determines if marijuana might treat a patient's conditions and symptoms.  If the doctor finds that a patient has a quaifying condition listed under California Proposition 215, and revised Senate Bill 420, the doctor may officially recommend (in writing) the use of medical marijuana.  A doctor's recommendation allows patients to purchase marijuana at licensed dispensaries, or other suppliers of cannabis based medicines in both California and Nevada.


  • Arthritis
  • Anorexia
  • AIDS
  • Cancer
  • Chronic pain
  • Cachexia
  • Glaucoma
  • Migraines
  • Muscle spasms, multiple sclerosis
  • Seizures, epilepsy
  • Severe nausea

Or any other ongoing medical symptom that substantially limits the ability of the person to conduct one or more major life activities as defined by the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 or, if not alleviated, might cause serious harm to the patient’s safety or physical or mental health.


means the uptake of water and dissolved nutrients by a plant.  Absorbance depends on the time of the growth cycle, the health of the plant, temperature, pH and condition of the soil and root system.

is a place where patients can access medical marijuana,  licensed provider of cannabis based medicines, i.e. dispensary, delivery service, co-op, compassion club, clinic.

refers to non THC and CBD cannabinoids, such as CBC, CBG, CBN and sometimes CBD.  Accessory cannabinoids interact with THC to produce generally more desirable medicinal and recreational effects.   This phenomena is known as the entourage effect.

means to artificially change the environmental conditions to prepare a plant for a new growing situation.  Before moving plants grown indoor to outdoor, they should be first acclimated by simulating wind and cooler temperature, by dropping the thermostat, and blowing fan air on them for several days.

means a nonprofit organization that requires conformance to ISO/IEC 17025 requirements and is a signatory to the International Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation Mutual Recognition Arrangement for Testing.

is a type of simple dry fruit that resemble seeds.  Achene is produced by flowering plants, including cannabis.  Achenes contain a single seed that nearly fills the pericarp, but does not adhere to it, nor opens at maturity. The seed-like appearance is owed to the hardening of the wall of the seed-vessel, which encloses the solitary seed closely.

is a liquid with a pH of less than 7.0  Acidic solutions taste sour.  Marijuana grows best in slightly acidic soils with pH of 6 to 6.5.  pH under 5 will stunt plant growth or kill it.

is when the pH of something (soil, hydroponic medium, water, etc.) is less than 7.0.   

The lower the pH, the stronger the acidity.

refers to moving a nutrient solution, usually with a pump, in a hydroponic system.

is a process where an organism changes for the better in reaction to stress.  For example, cannabis plants adapt to a moderate wind by growing stronger stems.

is a type of clay which is very fine and packs together so much that water can only penetrate it very slowly.  Oxygen has a hard time making it to root systems, so Adobe is not a suitable growing medium (soil) for marijuana.  

grow randomly or accidentally, and shoot off in weird directions.  Adventitious roots sometimes shoot out from the stem of an older root.  Inappropriate use of plant growth hormones like Auxins may cause this type of growth.

means to mix something with air.  In cultivation, areation is required to allow nutritious oxygen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide to penetrate the soil, and feed the plant's roots and friendly flora.  Plowing, tilled or mixed are examples of soil aeration. Soil that is porous allows air can get to the root system.  In poorly aerated soils, the average particle size of the soil is small, that air cannot flow into the soil.  Soils with sand and organic matter have a larger particle size that allows air to flow.



is a crowing technique, where plant roots that are suspended in air.  Plant nutrients and water sprayed via a fine mist on the root zone.

is a hydroponics growing medium composed of hard stones or volcanic rocks that support plants, but does not provide nutrients.

is the economics (cost study) of an agricultural operation.

is a method to make conentrates from the flowers (bud) of marijuana. Cannabis can be extracted using ethyl alcohol (best), or isopropyl (not the best) as a solvent to dissolve cannabis trichomes and essential oils from flowers (buds).  Ethanol is the only alcohol should be used in tinctures. The dissolved cannabinoids and essential oils (terpenes and terpenoids) in an alcohol extraction can be consumed directly or concentrated by removing the alcohol by evaporation, by heating the solution or using vacuum distillation.   Different extraction methods result in retaining more or less of the volatile components (essential oils), while preserving most of the cannabinoids such as THC and CBD, as seen in shatter, oil and budder.

is the opposite of an acid. Alkaline soils have a pH over 7 and is not desirable for growing marijuana.  pH in soils and water can be balanced by adding acid producing substances, such as manure, peat moss, nitrogen fertilizers, sulfur and sulfates.

refers to the pH of a liquid or solid, like water or soil.  Alkaline conditions are where the pH is more than 7.0 to 12.  Marijuana can grow well in slightly alkaline soil, with pH of 7.5, but not over 8.0.   To reduce acidity, an alkaline material, like lime with pH 12 is added to balance soils with a ph under 6.0.

is when an alkyl molecule is substituted or added to another molecule.  For example, in the cannabis plant, THCA is produced from alkylation from CBGA, olivetolic acid with geranyl pyrophosphate.

are are pairs of genes, that express the traits of an organism. Genes are specific chunks of DNA located on chromosomes in the nucleus of cells.  Genes are triggered automatically or by environmental conditions.  Manipualting the growing environments can alter the expression of the genes, creating enzymes that accelerate plant growth, change sexual expression, to produce more or less THC, CBD, cannabinoid, terpenoid and other molecular components.

is (essential pine oil), the most common of all plant terpenes and is also common in cannabis.  This evergreen, piney terpene is a bronchodilator, promotes alertness and memory. Chemically, pinenes help cognition by inhibiting the breakdown of neurotransmitters that provide a vital spark for brain activity.

electric current that flows in one direction for a short period of time and then reverses.  AC of 60 Hz means that the current reverses direction 60 times per second.  Electrical equipment that is designed for direct current (does not change direction) cannot be used in an AC circuit and vice versa.

is a grow additive that changes the quality and texture of the growth medium, in either soil or hydroponics.

 is a compound found in both natural and chemical fertilizers.  Ammonium nitrate provides bioavailable nitrogen, which is rapidly absorbed by roots to accelerate vegetative growth.  

ia a measure of the quantity of electrons flowing in a circuit.  Voltage equates to the energy of each electron.  Power or Watts are the number of electrons times the energy of the average electron.  A lighting unit that operates at 20 amps on a 15 amp circuit will either blow the breaker (set to pop around 15 amps) or the wires will heat to the point of shorting.  This is a common cause of fire in grow operations.

means to possess male sexual parts, capable of producing sperm or pollen, that can fertilize a female plant or female part of a hermaphrodite (plant with both male and female sexual devices).

is to pollinate by dispersing pollen via the wind or artificially by a fan.

is a type of plant that normally completes its entire life cycle within one year or season.  Cannabis is an annual plant that calculates the end of the season (and life cycle), by sensing a reduction in the amount of day light.

for purposes of Article 4 (commencing with Section 19319), means the following:

(1) Owner or owners of a proposed facility, including all persons or entities having ownership interest other than a security interest, lien, or encumbrance on property that will be used by the facility.
(2) If the owner is an entity, owner includes within the entity each person participating in the direction, control, or management of, or having a financial interest in, the proposed facility.
(3) If the applicant is a publicly traded company, owner means the chief executive officer or any person or entity with an aggregate ownership interest of 5 percent or more.

is a glass tube used in a High Energy Discharge lamp, such as High Pressure Sodium lamps.  A transparent arc tube is filled with gas and capped with electrodes on both ends. When the electrodes are hooked up to a supply of electicity, a current flows through the gas.  The resultant electrified gas gives off characteristic colors of light, depending on the gas used and the power of the electricity.

is a term used to describe the fragrance or a good smell.  In cannabis culture, aroma sometimes refers to both the smell and taste while inhaling from a joint.  Aromatic descriptors common to marijuana culture include skunky, fruity, dank, earthy, or citrusy.

refers to the process of cloning, which is self non-sexual reproduction.  In the case of marijuana, branch cuttings are placed in a growing medium, which grow into a genetic copy of the parent.

means an individual who possesses a license in good standing to practice medicine or osteopathy issued by the Medical Board of California or the Osteopathic Medical Board of California and who has taken responsibility for an aspect of the medical care, treatment, diagnosis, counseling, or referral of a patient and who has conducted a medical examination of that patient before recording in the patient’s medical record the physician’s assessment of whether the patient has a serious medical condition and whether the medical use of marijuana is appropriate.

are marijuana varieties that automatically switch from a vegetation to flowering at a certain age, as opposed to a change in light; (more darkness).  Autoflower strains generally take about ten weeks to mature.  Other types, called super-autos take three months or so to mature, at which time, they stand six to eight feet tall.  Ruderallis and Ruderallis hybrids are popular autoflowering strains, which have a reputation for their ability to grow in challenging conditions.

is a type of plant hormone that stimulates foliage and root growth in every plant phase. Auxins are produced by the plant naturally or can be supplemented using organic and synthetic sources.  Training and trimming affect the flow and concentration of growth hormones of specific areas of the plant.


are a small single celled life form that inhabits every place on earth, from the bottom of the ocean to the mountain tops.  There are about 40 million bacteria in the average gram of el natural soil and a million organisms per millilitre of fresh water.  Most bacteria are harmless or useful to humans and plants. Many naturally occurring bacteria are in fact anti-fungal, so altering the natural flora with herbicides is and overall bad idea.

is a common condition in Cannabis.  Bacteria lie at the base of the food chain; in their life cycle they provide a natural source of valuable nutrients to plants and animals directly and indirectly.  Healthy bacterial and fungal populations in the soil is needed for the production of healthy plants.  Chemical agents like Roundup and other chemicals that modify the natural microbial balance should be avoided.

is cannabis seed without its origin documented.

is a part of a high intensity discharge lamp (HID). A ballast keeps electricity flowing optimally and consistent through the gas in a tube (lamp) which generates light in the process.  A ballast adds AC resistance to the circuit which counteracts the negative resistance of the tube, and limits the current to safe operating levels.  A HID ballast is equipped with an auto-transformer,which ramps up voltage to triggers the initial electrical flow - as more electric energy is required to get electrons ionized at startup.

is a joint of marijuana with curves like a banana.

means a specific quantity of medical cannabis or medical cannabis products that is intended to have uniform character and quality, within specified limits, and is produced according to a single manufacturing order during the same cycle of manufacture.

is marijuana from British Columbia Canada.  Exports are almost universally high quality and are especially potent in THC.

is a friendly insect that eats pests that consume cannabis crops.  Examples of beneficial insects include; lady bugs, pirate bugs and spiders.

is a now famous ingredient of black pepper oil, oregano, and some strains of cannabis.  Consuming a few black pepper peppercorns can offset panic attacks and paranoia caused by THC.

or butane hash oil  is a waxy concentrated cannabis extract.  BHO is extracted from cannabis by pushing liquid butane (a flammable solvent) through a tube packed with its flowers. The butane cannabis liquid extract is placed under low heat, where the solvent evaporates, and a mixture of essential oils, waxes, chlorophyll, terpenes and cannabinoids remain.   In other procedures, the volatile components, the terpenes are lost during heating.  Since butane is a very flammable liquid, many a BHO operation has accidentally burned to the ground.

refers to a substance or thing that decomposes via microbial or natural action.  Most biodegradable substances are organic.  Some plastics and other synthetics are engineered to biodegrade.

is the manufacture of molecules by an organism.


In plants including cannabis, sugar and cellulose (fiber) is biosynthesized by combining water and carbon dioxide.  Terpene building blocks or substrates are biosynthesized using phosphates absorbed from the soil into cannabinoids.  


Biosynthesis or biogenesis or is a multi-step, enzyme-catalyzed process where substrates (simpler molecules) are converted into more complex molecules.  Biosynthesis is regulated and stimulated by a response to the environment which triggers enzyme action, which causes the DNA to code molecules required for adaptation.    The ratios of cannabinoids and other compounds can be manipulated by genetic selection.

Environmental factors that affect biosynthesis include; light, temperature, oxygen, carbon dioxide, physical sensation, stress.


In Cannabis, CBG is the first cannabinoid molecule that is synthesized.  All other cannabinoids, including THC and CBD are biosynthesized from the building block of CBG.  The amounts of the various cannabinoids that are produced depend on the enzymatic action, which are proteins coded from the genes.

is compressed keif made from Afghani or Middle Eastern cannabis.

is used to disinfect grow operations and even soil. Common household bleach contains sodium hypochlorite and / or calcium hypochlorite.   Bleach will kill bacteria, viruses and algae, but its odors are toxic to humans and it also kills beneficial organisms, as well as damages the marijuana plants themselves.  

is a dry powder made from the blood of farm animals.  Blood meal is used as a high-nitrogen organic fertilizer with concentration of major nutrients: N = 13%, P = 1.0%, K = 0.6%.

ia the process where a plants grow flowers to maturity. Cannabis flowers contain the bulk of the plant's cannabinoids, so growers focus on growing techniques that yield the most possible flowers.

is a fertilizer that is specially designed to promote flower blooming.  Bloom boosters are high in phosphorus and potassium, which promoted flower yield and harvest volume.

is a very short or midget plant.  Some cannabis varieties can be trained and encouraged to grow into a small conveniently sized plants that still yield an appreciable amount of flowers.  Bonsai plants are popular for indoor growers with limited cultivation space.

is the point where flowers emerge, designated by small spur-like foliage that grows from at the cannabis plant stem.

is a box with electric switches or breakers that are wired into electric circuits.  As power consumption rises, the wiring's temperature rises as well.  If too much power is drawn, such as hooking up too many lights on the same circuit, the breaker will blow, or break and the circuit and no electricity flows.   To accommodate a heavier power draw, the circuit needs thicker wire and with a bigger breaker.

is to manipulate sex reproduction between different female and male plants.  In cannabis, breeding involves the transfer of pollen (sperm) to the bud  (flower's stigma) which is self transported to the ovary, where seeds are created.  Parents are chosen for their traits, attributes, like potency, size, resistance to disease, terps, etc.

is a cannabis flower or group of flowers.  Bud also refers to a baby stem, leaf, or shoot.  A terminal bud is located at the apex of the female marijuana plant, when clipped, it affects growth horizontally rather than vertically.

Bud is the part of the cannabis plant that is on sale in dispensaries. Bud contains generous amounts of cannabinoids, such as THC, CBD, cannabinoids, terpenes, and other compounds.  These sought after ingredients are secreted by glandular trichomes that look like tiny glass balls on a stick under a magnifying glass.  Ground bud is a raw product used in the production of hashish and hashish oil.

Cannabis cultivation methods focus in the breeding, growing and harvesting of strains that produce dense flowers potent in cannabinoids, especially THC.  Females plants are much preferred because bud is more abundant and potent than males.  Also, if female bud is fertilized, it produces seeds low in THC and cannabinoids.  To avoid unwanted pollination, male flowers are usually killed or removed from the grow site.

Is a condition that attacks and destroys cannabis flowers.  There are a variety of causes, all of microbial origin, most often includes fungus and sometimes bacteria.  Grey mold rot is caused by a fungus which thrives in cool humid conditions.  Blights and molds are typically caused by poor growing conditions that can be easily rectified; i.e. by controlling humidity, temperature and light.

is a person that advises customers or patients on their purchase of recreational or medical marijuana.  In essence, a budtender (BT) is a cross between a bartender and a pharmacist, working the counter of a dispensary and offers suggestions, answers questions and showcases  strains and products to customers.  A boobtender is a politically incorrect term for an attractive female, who was hired to "serve" the young male demographic, rather  than for her encyclopedic knowledge of marijuana strains.  

is a substance that cushions against fluctuations, such as changes in pH.   A buffering agent can be a weak acid or weak base. Buffering agents are added to water forming a buffer solution, changing its pH only slightly in response to acids and bases.   Many fertilizers contain buffer agents  Monopotassium phosphate is a common agricultural buffering agent;  when applied as a fertilizer with urea or diammonium phosphate, pH fluctuations are minimized, while simultaneously providing potassium nutrition.

are a glassy, ball-shaped, oily resin-producing hair found in the flower of the female cannabis  plant. Trichomes are rich in cannabinoids, such as THC and CBD.  Much of cannabis smell comes from the trichomes.  Terpenes that also have medicinal and fragrant properties are found in abundance in the trichomes.  

means the Bureau of Medical Marijuana Regulation within the Department of Consumer Affairs.


or the Compassionate Use Act of 1996, is a California law allowing for the use of medical cannabis.  This law bypassed the Federal Government's Food and Drug Administration regulatory requirements of testing for safety and efficacy.

is a small growth of plant tissue that results from injury, such as cutting and trimming.  Callus forms when a plant senses injury and releases hormones that produces undifferentiated cells.

is a plant container, also referred to as a pod or casing, which encloses both male or female cannabis reproductive organs.

is a layer of cells that divides to form xylem and phloem - the tubes and helper cells, which transports water, sugars and nutrients around the plant.

is the plant family which includes cannabis,  hops and about 170 other species.

is a medicinal non-psychoactive cannabinoid found in minor, but significant quantities in some strains of marijuana.  CBC has anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory, pain relieving, anti-depressive and bone stimulating growth properties.

is the second most abundant cannabinoid found in most strains of both medical and recreational cannabis in North America. CBD has no psychoactive properties and its toxicity is functionally zero, none the less it was recently listed as a Schedule 1 drug.  There are not documented cases of overdose, nor is there any demand what so ever for CBD in recreational use.


CBD's therapeutic indications include; Crohn's, epilepsy, chronic pain, anxiety, nausea, rheumatoid arthritis, schizophrenia, diabetes, PTSD, alcoholism, strokes and cardiovascular disease, cancer, neurological disorders, among others.

The CBD molecule is similar in structure to THC, but slight differences affect quite different action with cannabinoid receptors, which affect many physical and mental processes and functions.  CBD's most obvious difference with THC is not psychoactive.  In the marijuana CBD exists in an acid form which is denoted CBDA.  Upon heating the acid releases carbon dioxide and CBDA transforms to CBD.  While both forms or CBD is medicinal, most research has focused on decarboxylated.

means a chemical compound that is unique to and derived from cannabis.

is a laboratory test of a marijuana strain that measures potency, the quantity of the active ingredients which are the cannabinoids.  A cannabinoid profile is most often used to establish the CBD:THC ratios, which is somewhat predictive of its psychoactive effects.  Other cannabinoids contribute to what is known as the entourage effect, where THC's activity is modulated, often for the better.  standard cannabinoid test typically measures the quantity of THC, THCA, CBD, CBDA.  Other cannabinoids routinely included in a profile are: CBN,CBC,CBG and THCV in their acid and nonacid forms.   

usually refers to THC and CBD ingredients of marijuana.  Cannabinoids are the chemical compounds found in cannabis that mimic and supplement body biochem chemicals - endocannabinoids - that interact and ultimately control receptors found in every cell in the human body.  Cannabinoids in marijuana, especially THC and CBD, modulate the receptors CB1 and CB2 which is involved in the function of nearly every body system, disease and condition.


The most famous cannabinoid is THC.  THC is psychoactive but most cannabinoids are not.  CBD, THC and other cannabinoids work better together medicinally in ways yet to be fully understood.  


Cannabinoid commonly found in cannabis include CBC, CBCV, CBD, CBDA, CBDV, CBG, CBGV, CBL, CBN*, CBV, THC*, THCA, THCV*.  * = psychoactive.  The amount of each cannabinoid depends on the strain. THC is commonly found in amounts varying from 0.2 to 30%.

CBD is commonly in the 0.3 to 18% range but is high in only a few selectively bred strains.  The other cannabinoids listed above tend to run in the 0.1 to 1% range in all but select strains.   

The response to cannabinoids varies greatly between individuals, and medicating with cannabis really is a case of different strains for different folks.  

the official scientific name for marijuana, a genus - subgroup of flowering plant in the family Cannabaceae.

means all parts of the plant Cannabis sativa Linnaeus, Cannabis indica, or Cannabis ruderalis, whether growing or not; the seeds thereof; the resin, whether crude or purified, extracted from any part of the plant; and every compound, manufacture, salt, derivative, mixture, or preparation of the plant, its seeds, or resin. Cannabis also means the separated resin, whether crude or purified, obtained from marijuana. Cannabis also means marijuana as defined by Section 11018 of the Health and Safety Code as enacted by Chapter 1407 of the Statutes of 1972. Cannabis does not include the mature stalks of the plant, fiber produced from the stalks, oil or cake made from the seeds of the plant, any other compound, manufacture, salt, derivative, mixture, or preparation of the mature stalks (except the resin extracted therefrom), fiber, oil, or cake, or the sterilized seed of the plant which is incapable of germination. For the purpose of this chapter, cannabis does not mean industrial hemp as defined by Section 81000 of the Food and Agricultural Code or Section 11018.5 of the Health and Safety Code.

means manufactured cannabis that has undergone a process to concentrate the cannabinoid active ingredient, thereby increasing the product’s potency. An edible medical cannabis product is not considered food, as defined by Section 109935 of the Health and Safety Code, or a drug, as defined by Section 109925 of the Health and Safety Code.

means a product containing cannabis, including, but not limited to, concentrates and extractions, intended to be sold for use by medical cannabis patients in California pursuant to the Compassionate Use Act of 1996 (Proposition 215), found at Section 11362.5 of the Health and Safety Code. For the purposes of this chapter, medical cannabis does not include industrial hemp as defined by Section 81000 of the Food and Agricultural Code or Section 11018.5 of the Health and Safety Code.

means literally neck cut off, i.e. a trichome without a stalk or neck.  Trichomes are the target of both recreational and medical users, because they have the highest concentration of THC, cannabinoids and terpenes in the entire plant.

is a substance that manufactured - or biosynthesized by plants. In a process called photosynthesis, water and carbon dioxide gathered from the air combine in the leaves of plants with the driving energy coming from sunlight. In this reaction a simple sugar, called glucose is produced, which is the building block of starch and cellulose, the components that make up plant fiber and tissue structure..  i.e. cellulose (woody fiber) is a biosynthesized chain of sugars, which are made of carbon dioxide  & water, hence the name, carbohydrate.  

To improve plant growth, carbon-dioxide gas, nutrients that promote root growth and full spectrum light are used to produce more sugar.  More sugar production means more carbohydrates, which means more growth, which leads to bigger flowers and yields.

is an atmospheric gas.  It is colorless, odorless, and tasteless and absolutely necessary for plant life.   Oddly, in the 20th century, the notion that excessive carbon dioxide is bad for the environment became popular.  However, in agriculture, increased levels of carbon dioxide are known to to fundamental to increasing biomass.  In marijuana cultivation, carbon dioxide is used effectively to improve growth and yields.

means corrosive, a caustic (very basic pH) material or liquid that dissolves and reacts with vulnerable materials.  Caustic agents are used to clean, kill and disinfect, finding use in various applications in the marijuana industry.

Sodium hydroxide, or caustic soda \, potassium hydroxide, sometimes or caustic potash, calcium oxide, or caustic lime are common caustic materials used in industry and agriculture.  In the home, sodium hydroxide is used to dissolve organic matter and sludge that blocks pipes.  Caution should be used when handling caustic materials, they eat the flesh, dissolve metals, but don't harm many kinds of plastics, such as PVC pipe.

is a receptor.  Receptors and cannabinoids work in conjunction to regulate body and brain activity. CB1 receptors are found in the brain,nervous system, peripheral organs and tissues.  CB1 receptors are responsible for THC's psychoactive effects. Cannabinoid therapy with ThC and CBD is used for primarily in conditions involving memory, mood, sleep, appetite and pain sensation.

is a receptor.  Receptors work in conjunction with cannabinoids to affect many bodily functions.  CB2 receptors are primarily involved in regulating the immune system and its response.  The cannabinoid CBD has been shown to interact with the CB2 receptor to produce  potent anti-inflammatory effects, making cannabis a potential therapeutic agent for most inflammatory diseases.

is a small structural-functional unit, which are the basic building block of plants and animals. The tiniest organisms are composed of a single cell.  Plants and animals are composed of many kinds of different cells, with each type assigned a different role.  In plants, cells contain a nucleus, membrane and the base structural unit of plants: cells contain a nucleus, membrane, and sub-units which include chloroplasts.  Chloroplasts conduct photosynthesis and provide the energy and building block sugars to the cells, which is transported throughout the plant for use as energy or material to build other cells.  The nucleus contains the DNA, which is the code to build proteins.  Protein enzymes cause or regulate growth activity of the plants.  The membranes contain sensors that guide the flow of material into and out of the cell.  

is a chain of sugars (or polymer) produced from photosynthesis.  Cellulose is a woody fiber that makes plants rigid, allowing it to stand, and grow bigger and taller. The amount of cellulose in plants is a function of stress, such as wind.  In cannabis cultivation, in the early growth stages, an appropriate amount of air flow (from a fan) will cause the plant to respond by producing more cellulose in an effort to make the stem stronger.  Once the stem has adequate strength, then the stress can be removed.  This technique is used because weak plants cannot support the weight of a high flower yield.  

is a temperature scale used worldwide.  The optimal temperature for growing marijuana is somewhere around 25 deg centigrade or 75 deg Fahrenheit.

In the centigrade system, 100 degrees is set to equal the boiling point of water and 0 degrees is set at the freezing point. One degree centigrade is 1.8 times one degree Fahrenheit.  The most comfortable temperature range for both humans and marijuana plants lies between 23C and 30C which converts to 73F - 86F.

means a certificate issued by an accrediting body to a licensed testing laboratory, entity, or site to be registered in the state.

an ionic reaction of a substance with a metal .  Chelates are synthetic materials that are produced to make a particular mineral more bioavailable to a plant or organism.  The metal that is chelated rides wherever the chelator goes into a biological system. i.e. the amino acid glycine (the chelator) is chelated with calcium (the mineral) which is taken absorbed and metabolized by the plant, as opposed to lone calcium minerals.

means Chief of the Bureau of Medical Marijuana Regulation within the Department of Consumer Affairs.

is a plant that is not a clone, a Chimera plant comes from from at least two genetically different parents.

is a greenish light absorbing found in the leaves of plants. Chlorophyll's main function is to absorb and convert sunlight into chemical energy, that is used to biotransform water and carbon dioxide into sugar.  Simple sugars are then biosynthesized by the plant into cellulose fiber, starch and other plant components.

is the yellowing of leaves in unhealthy or dying plants. Chlorosis occurs when the production of green chlorophyll stops and  the production of yellow carotene pigments increases.  

Chlorosis results when there is a mineral or nutrient deficiency, imbalance or stress.  Chlorosis also occurs naturally at the end of a growth cycle, where the plant dies and rots, but becomes a nutrient for the next generation, who will inhabit their former territory.  Healthy growing conditions are the solution to chlorosis issues.

are long strings of DNA that reside in the nucleus of most cells.  Chunks of DNA on a chromosome are called genes.  Chromosomes come in duplicate pairs.  Cannabis has 10 pairs of chromosomes, which hold all the information to produce a new organism.  In addition, DNA holds unexpressed information from its ancestors that can be expressed in offspring, both randomly and in response to environmental stress. The genetics of a strain can be obtained by sequencing the DNA from chromosomes.  Barring mutation, the closer the DNA sequence matches between two organisms, the more closely they are related.

is a path along a conductor (wire) where electrons flow a source (high voltage) to a lower voltage or ground. In an electric circuit, the flow of electricity from a source to an electrical device and loops back to the source.  The high and low voltages are typically plus and minus electrodes of a battery, or the hot and neutral wires at the breaker box.  


An example of a source would be a breaker box which commonly supplies 110 or 220 V power.  A light bulb is an example of a device in an electric circuit.

An example of a simple electric circuit is a battery, where one end of a conducting wire is attached to the negative electrode on the battery, and the other end is connected to a metal bar with high resistance. A second wire is connected to the other end of the metal bar and is attached to the positive electrode of the battery.  Electricity flows from positive to negative through the resistance (metal bar) through to ground.  The metal bar heats up and gives off light and heat, and consumes power

is very fine soil particles, which, by themselves, are poor for use in agriculture.  Clay is typically composed of mineral oxides of silicon and aluminum, with percent levels of calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium.  The main problem with clay is that it packs together with little space for oxygen, nitrogen and water to flow.  As a result, clay drains very slowly and is mostly unsuitable for gardening and marijuana growing.  To overcome clay's tight packing issues, it can be mixed with coarse sand and organic matter such as straw.

is the combination of environmental conditions over the course of a year.  Climate parameters include temperature, humidity, wind, precipitation (rain or snow), extreme weather, sunlight, cloud and pollution. Cannabis thrives in moderate temperature zones with ample sunlight and not too much moisture.

is an asexual or self-propagated plant.  Marijuana is cloned by placing branch cuttings in a suitable growth medium and environment to produce a plant with genetically identical expression.

is a group of people that are permitted to grow or access marijuana together exclusively from the same facility or location.  In some states, co-ops exist alongside or in lieu of dispensaries. In California, Co-ops and collectives must serve only verified legal patients, and distribute only to their own members.

"A collective should be an organization that merely facilitates the collaborative efforts of patient and caregiver members – including the allocation of costs and revenues. As such, a collective is not a statutory entity, but as a practical matter it might have to organize as some form of business to carry out its activities. The collective should not purchase marijuana from, or sell to, non-members; instead, it should only provide a means for facilitating or coordinating transactions between members."

includes cultivation, possession, manufacture, processing, storing, laboratory testing, labeling, transporting, distribution, or sale of medical cannabis or a medical cannabis product, except as set forth in Section 19319, related to qualifying patients and primary caregivers.

are extracts of cannabis, which are concentrated in psychoactive and medicinal cannabinoids.  THC values can be in the 60 to 90% range.  Concentrates are usually made by dissolving ground marijuana bud or other parts  in a solvent.  Popular solvents include butane, alcohol, ether, naphth, olive oil among others.   Solvents that are edible like ethanol (grain alcohol) and olive oil are recommended while toxic solvents are not.

Examples of concentrates include BHO (butane hash oil), goo, budder, wax, shatter.  The composition of concentrates varies on the type of solvent used, the techniques.  Using lower temperatures results in the retention of lighter components, terpenes and terpenoids, which is reflected a more liquid like composition.  

describes the condition of dry mouth caused by smoking certain strains of weed.   Often, cottonmouth is accompanied tthe munchies.  Cottonmouth is not a serious condition, which goes away on its own, as effects wear off and is treated by drinking some water.

refers to crossbreeding marijuana - between two different strains from two distinct populations or varieties. For example, Blue Dream is a cross between Blueberry and Haze strains.

is a commoner term for the glassy appearance of a cannabis flower's trichomes.  Potent marijuana trichomes are so packed with cannabinoids, especially THC and terpenes, that the resin, in fact does crystalize.

means any activity involving the planting, growing, harvesting, drying, curing, grading, or trimming of cannabis.

means a facility where medical cannabis is planted, grown, harvested, dried, cured, graded, or trimmed, or that does all or any combination of those activities, that holds a valid state license pursuant to this chapter, and that holds a valid local license or permit.

is the process of drying marijuana so its quality may be preserved.   Moisture causes marijuana to degrade or grow mold and mildew.  Plants are usually harvested and trimmed (flowers) and then dried.  Drying should take place slowly in a low humidity area with slight air flow at moderate temperatures.


are potent solvent extracts of cannabis flowers (bud) which contain wax, essential oils, THC, CBD, cannabinoids and other non-polar molecules.  Dabs include butane hash oil or hash oil.  Shatter refers to hardened, processed hash oil; made by removing the volatile by heating.  Shatter has a peanut brittle in texture at room temperature and runs like honey when heated.

is a fungus disease caused by over watering seedlings or clones, which causes rot at the base of the young plant's stem.  Excessive dampness, poor lighting, poor airflow encourage this disease as well as mold.

  strong-smelling, high-quality weed.

is the process of heating or burning cannabis that makes THC psychoactive.  Decarboxylation removes carbon dioxide, which converts the "inactive" acid forms of cannabinoids, particularly THCA and CBDA, into analogues that are more medically bioactive and / or psychoactive.  The most popular decarboxylation techniques are smoking, vaping and baking (edibles).  

Decarboxylation occurs at around 240 degrees Fahrenheit.

occurs at around 240 degrees Fahrenheit, converting THCA and CBDA into THC psychoactive and CBD non-psychoactive.

means to rot or decay through the action enzymes in conjunction with bacteria, fungus or other microorganisms. Life forms are programmed to decompose at the end of their life cycle.  In this process, the constituent atoms are immortal, and decomposed matter is recycled into offspring, other life forms or the earth itself.

means to remove moisture from the air.  A dehumidifier is used  to achieve dryer, more optimal conditions for plant growth.  Excessive humidity can cause disease in cannabis plants.  When humid air cools, water precipitates out forming droplets.  A simple dehumidifier consists of a fan that blows air onto a cold surface where the water is collected and then removed.

means to dry something out completely.  When cannabis plants are harvested, they are dried to preserve them.  If plants are not properly dried, marijuana can spoil and mold.  Ovens, the sun or placing cannabis plants in an area with low humidity will result in dehydration.  Slow drying at lower or moderate temperatures is preferred by most growers.

means the commercial transfer of medical cannabis or medical cannabis products from a dispensary, up to an amount determined by the bureau to a primary caregiver or qualified patient as defined in Section 11362.7 of the Health and Safety Code, or a testing laboratory. Delivery also includes the use by a dispensary of any technology platform owned and controlled by the dispensary, or independently licensed under this chapter, that enables qualified patients or primary caregivers to arrange for or facilitate the commercial transfer by a licensed dispensary of medical cannabis or medical cannabis products.

is a convenient way to access marijuana.  Legal delivery services require clients to have a medical marijuana recommendation from a licensed Californian doctor.  Some counties prohibit delivery services.  California delivery services cannot service clients in other States.

means the State Department of Health Services in marijuana related legislation.

means that soil nutrients have been used up.  Soil that is depleted in nutrients it will produce poor yields,  Some soils are capable of only one or two crops before they become depleted. Adding  manure, compost, fertilizers, peat, nutrient solutions and other organic matter will revitalize depleted soil.

means to remove all the water in something.  Desiccation is a common way to preserve herbs.  Desiccating agents can also be used as insecticides, as the pests die from dehydration, like a man that dies of thirst in the desert.

mixed with water can be used as a pesticide.  In most common applications refers to laundry or dish detergent, but not hand soap or shampoo.  Detergents are commercially available as powders or concentrated solutions. Detergents work because they dissolve in both oil and water.  That is why hot water with detergent can wash out either a wine or oil stain from fabric.   Organic detergents are thought to be safe, while the use of inorganic detergents is frowned upon.

means dormancy, diminished or suspension of plant growth for a period.

is a group of sativa dominant strains that originated in New England.   Diesel is thought to be a ancestor of the ChemDawg group of strains.  Diesel is one of the most pungent of varieties, smelling of skunk, burning tires, diesel, citrus and pine.  THC content hovers around 20% with appreciable values of CBD, THCV, CBG and CBC.  Effects tend to be energising and uplifting  with pain, depression and stress relieving properties.

is a type of plant that has male and female sexes.  Cannabis is a dioecious plant with monoecious (single sex) tendencies.

is a condition where genders display separate, identifiable features or traits.

refers to an electric current that flows in one direction continuously. AC flows in alternating forward and backward directions.  AC electric devices convert AC into DC via a rectifier.

is a condition that results in chronic dysfunction or suboptimal performance of an organism or one of its parts.  Origins of disease include, environmental, nutritional, genetic, accidental, parasitic, microbial and toxic chemical sources.

refers to a commercial cannabis based medicine supply facility where a patient or consumer can legally access cannabis.  Technically a dispensary, or MMJ access point can also refer to a co-op, collective, compassion club or legal distributor.

means a facility where medical cannabis, medical cannabis products, or devices for the use of medical cannabis or medical cannabis products are offered, either individually or in any combination, for retail sale, including an establishment that delivers, pursuant to express authorization by local ordinance, medical cannabis and medical cannabis products as part of a retail sale.

means the procurement, sale, and transport of medical cannabis and medical cannabis products between entities licensed pursuant to this chapter.

means a person licensed under this chapter to engage in the business of purchasing medical cannabis from a licensed cultivator, or medical cannabis products from a licensed manufacturer, for sale to a licensed dispensary.

 refers to a marijuana-like growing wild, often in a ditch.  Ditch weed is like hemp, it has very little THC and few documented medicinal benefits.

is an amount of a substance added in a process or in a treatment.  A dose can refer to the amount of a fertilizer or insecticide, or the amount of THC in mg given to a medical marijuana patient.

a transplanting technique that minimizes root disturbances by using two-pots.  In this method, a smaller plastic pot is placed in a larger pot.  When the plant outgrows the smaller pot, the bottom of the smaller pot is removed and set in a larger pot that half filled with soil, where the root system takes hold.

is the removal of excessive water used in cultivation.  Soil with good drainage allows water to reach the roots and continues downward, where is runs off into a drain. In a bad drainage situation, the water stands and drowns the roots, and does not permit air to penetrate.

means all dead medical cannabis that has been harvested, dried, cured, or otherwise processed, excluding leaves and stems.

is a simple, yet effective way of watering plants.  A Drip irrigation system consists of a hose with tiny holes, where the water pressure sprays tiny droplets of water onto the plants. This system allows plants to breathe, watering cycles are usually frequent.  Drip irrigation avoids the need to drag hoses and sprinklers around the grow area.

is a line about a plant directly under its outermost branches that typically marks roots outermost growth.

is frozen carbon dioxide, formed when the gas is under compression at low temperatures.  Dry ice is used to conveniently lower temperatures a formulation process.  Upon heating, dry ice changes into CO2 a cold smoky, odorless and non-toxic gas.

is prepared using a mechanical separation process using a variety of sieves (screens) that vibrate to collect the trichomes and fine plant material that is typically very high in resin, oil and cannabinoids.   The collected cannabis material is pressed into cakes, which is traditionally known as kief. Quality dry sieve using fine screens can produce hash with  50 to 60 percent THC or more.

is a small portion of soil that is missed while watering.  Dry soil pockets be remedied tilling the soil and re-watering.

refers to a hole filled with rocks that allows water to easily drain away.


is a plug-in device used to heat cannabis concentrates for consumption via inhalation.  E-nails  enables lower temperature dabbing, which offers more flavor and greater preservation of terpenes as compared a torch.

is a term to describe opaque hash oil. The texture is created by whipping extracted oil overheat, which infuses air to make it lighter.  Sometimes in preparing earwax, the mixture becomes semi-solid wax.  This process is called auto-buddering.

means manufactured cannabis that is intended to be used, in whole or in part, for human consumption, including, but not limited to, chewing gum. An edible medical cannabis product is not considered food as defined by Section 109935 of the Health and Safety Code or a drug as defined by Section 109925 of the Health and Safety Code.

refers to beverages and foods infused with cannabis of some form or shape.  Most common are cannabis cookies, brownies, coffee drinks, breads, candies, butters, oils and candy.  In home baking cannabis butter is most often substituted into traditional recipes.

The effect of edibles lasts about eight or more hours, as compared to inhalation, which lasts an hour and a half.  Edibles are infused with decarboxylated marijuana or are baked at 340 deg F where non-active THCA is converted into THC.  Edibles are ideal for all night relief of pain and are an excellent sleeping tonic.  Dosage must be watched carefully as overdosing is very common.  Look at the label or compute the number of mg in an edible before consumption.

is a solid electric conductor that supplies current in a HID lamp where electricity flows from the negative electrode in the lamp's gas chamber to the positive electrode.  Along the way, the gas electrons are excited greatly and high intensity light is produced.

refers to a plant that is trained to grow in length. Cannabis plants elongate from three inches to twelve inches during the flowering phase.  Plants can be effectively trained to elongate using netting and strategic trimming.

is a bubble of air that blocks uptake of water and nutrients from the roots to the leaves. An embolism can damage or kill seedlings and clones.

is where pollen has attached to the egg inside a seed and cell division begins.  This infant plant is called the embryo.  In cannabis plants, embryo's grow in 2-3 days before they germinate and become seedlings.

emit refers to the nature of light shining from a lamp.  i.e. some industry sources claim that LEDs don't emit UV radiation.

is a beneficial wasp that eats harmful whiteflies.  Whiteflies are pests that can damage cannabis by sucking on the juice of leaves and flowers.

is a naturally occurring cannabinoid which is manufactured within the human body.  Cannabinoids are class of chemical compounds that act on cannabinoid receptors in cells that alter neurotransmitter chemical release in the brain.  Endocannabinoids are involved in literally every function and process in the human body.  


is a group of endogenous cannabinoid receptors located in the mammalian brain and nervous systems.  Known as the body’s own cannabinoid system the ECS is involved in a variety of physiological processes, including appetite, pain-sensation, mood, and memory, in mediating the psychoactive effects of cannabis. The ECS is also involved in voluntary exercise and may be related runner's high and a reward for locomotor activity in animals.

Two primary endocannabinoid receptors are  CB1, CB2, CB1 receptors are found predominantly in the brain,nervous system tissue, peripheral organs and tissues, and are the main molecular target of the endocannabinoid anandamide, and phytocannabinoid, THC. Another endocannabinoid 2-AG and phytocannabinoid CBD are active at both cannabinoid receptors, and are involved in the regulation of appetite, immune system functions and pain management among others.

is the phenomena, where natural cannabis that contains a variety of cannabinoids and terpenes, works much better medically than either synthetic THC or strains high in THC with little else.  A mix of 1:1 CBD and THC are also found to be more palatable, to both medical and recreational users as well.  

is the outer protective bulb or transparent jacket of a lamp.

are hydrated crystalline:magnesium sulfate. Epsom salts add used to fortify soil with magnesium.

is the time of year when daytime and nighttime are equal.  The equinox marks the first day of spring (March 20) and fall (September 23) when daylight is 12 hours.  Cannabis plants are programmed to sense the oncoming seasons by the number of hours of sunlight it receives.  Growers can trick plants into flowering by reducing the amount of light from 16 hours or so to ten or twelve hours.

are volatile and semi-volatile oils that contain fatty acids, terpenes and terpenoids, that create a stain's distinctive odor or flavor. Essential oils are a major component of resin that is secreted in and about the trichomes. Essential oils and cannabinoids work together in a process called the entourage effect.  The combination of essential oils and cannabinoids account for cannabis psychoactive and medicinal effects.

is a carcinogen (causes cancer) and mutagenic chemical that can cause mutations in plants and animals.  This chemical is to be avoided in marijuana cultivation.

means to grow in total darkness.  Etiolation is used as a technique to initiate root growth in seedlings where starch levels drop, strengthening tissues and fibers begin to soften, cell wall thickness decreases, vascular tissue diminishes, auxin (growth hormone) levels rise, and undifferentiated tissue forms. These conditions optimized will initiate strong root growth.


stands for the first filial generation, where offspring comes from two P1 parent plants.

F1 strains are generally very consistent and powerful in potency since they have strong genetic components the maiden parents.

is the second filial generation, resulting from a crossing of two F1 plants

are large fan-like marijuana leaves which are often an expression of Indica genetics:  Fan leaves are usually low in potency.

originally looks like a male organ, a pollen sac, but females show their sex when a hair like pistillate grows out of the base that ovule (egg) housing.  If pollen makes its way down the pistillate and meets the ovule, a seed is produced and cannabinoids are no longer manufactured.

refers to a seed that produces females only.  Feminized seeds are highly desirable since female flowers contain far more active ingredients than males and pollen from males can cause females to produce seeds and little THC or cannabinoids.  Feminized seeds are produced by selectively bred plants that produce only female seeds.

is the addition of nutrients to the soil, roots or foliage, i.e. add by applying fertilizer, manure, compost, peat, etc. (nutrients) to roots and foliage.  Fertilize can also refer to the pollination of a female plant, where male pollen unites with the female plant's ovary which generates offspring (seed).

is a plant damaging condition which results from over fertilization; initially the leaf tips turn brown, then curl up and die.  

is a flat shallow container that is used to grow seedlings and clones


is the final stage in the life of a cannabis  where most of the plant's energy goes toward reproduction.  in this survival effort, the cannabis plant produces as many flowers as possible.  normally flowers are pollinated and produce seeds, but marijuana growers learned long ago that non-pollinated female flowers are far more potent and contain much more THC and other cannabinoids if they are not pollinated.  Therefore, marijuana farmers concentrate on growing only female plants with genetics that produce an abundance of flowers potent in THC and / or CBD.


The flowering stage begins after the roots, stalk, branches and leaves grown to maturity (called the vegetative stage).   In the vegetative stage cannabis plants ideally receive 16 or more hours of quality light per day.  By reducing the light to 12 hours or less, the cannabis plant is led to believe that fall is coming and its time to get ready to seed, at which time nearly all the plant's energy goes into flowering.  If flowers are not pollinated, they continue to grow trichomes full of terpenes and cannabinoids.  The length of the flowering stage is several weeks and varies  from strain to strain.

Some strains have an auto-flowering stage, where the plant produces flowers after a number of weeks, independent of light settings.  

refers to the time it takes a plant to produce mature flowers.  Flowering times vary depending the type of strain and the growing conditions.  Flowering time can be manipulated by changing the growing conditions, by adding nutrients, hormones and varying the hours of light and dark the plant receives.

is the reproductive area of the plant.  both male and female plants produce flowers, but the male plant's flowers are tiny and have a pollen sac, while the females flowers are large and produce tiny structures called trichomes which produce resin with ample cannabinoids and terpenes.  If a female is pollinated, the flower's production of terpenes and cannabinoids shuts down and the plant produces seed, which are impotent, as far as cannabis consumers are concerned.

refers to the leaves and small branches of a plant. Cannabis plant foliage contains a little, but not much THC and CBD.

is fertilizer in solution, which is sprayed in a mist and absorbed by the foliage.

is a measure of light, where one FC is defined as the amount of light that shines from a candle (standardized) on a one square foot one foot away.  One FC equals, is the same as one lumen.

In the marijuana industry, footcandles are a common unit of measurement, used to calculate lighting levels for grow operations in buildings or outdoor spaces.

refers to nutrients and trace elements that are embedded in a glass like material. Fritted
trace elements (FTE) slowly leach into the soil or grow medium, providing long lasting and consistent nutrition to the plant.

means the Medical Marijuana Regulation and Safety Act Fund established pursuant to Section 19351.

is any substance that inhibits the growth or kills fungus.

is a substance that keeps fungus in check.

is a family of organisms that includes; mushrooms, yeast, mildew and mold.  Ideally, the soil should contain a healthy, natural assortment of fungus and bacteria, because they break down organic matter into bioavailable material and stimulate the production of antifungal and anti-bacterial molecules in plants occupying their territory.   Mold and mildew, however, are a hazard in marijuana growing, and result from unhealthy growing conditions, such as not enough light, air flow, excessive dampness, and suboptimal temperature.

is a safety device in an electric circuit that melts when there is too much current is going through a wire.  In the marijuana grow industry fires result from wires overheating -  incorrect wiring, circuit overload (too many lights on once circuit) combined with a faulty breaker - fuse system.

a fuse box or breaker box allows access to all the circuits of an electrical system.  Some facilities may have several breaker boxes, each designated to a specific area. Fuses or breakers are wired into each circuit and blow whenever the power consumption exceeds safe levels.


are reproductive cells.  Marijuana male plants gamete is the pollen and the female is the ovule.  Early in life the male pollen sac and the female pistil containing the ovule look the same until the hair like pistils grow.

is the Indian (Hindu) word for cannabis.

is a section of DNA, and is a part of a chromosome that influences the development and the potency of a plant: Genes are inherited through sexual propagation.

means the entire genetics of traits of a population.  Traits of marijuana are coded on DNA strings  that code enzymes.  These enzymes produce more or less THC, CBD, other cannabinoid production, terpene production, plant and leaf size, autoflowering, etc.

the genes inherited from parent plants: Genetic makeup is the most important factor dictating vigor and potency

is the first phase of a cannabis plants life, where a seed starts to grow.  Germination is sometimes referred to as seed popping.  Damp, dark and warm conditions cause enzymes in the seed to turn on the DNA, and the cells rapidly grow a root which pierces the shell.  The new root sucks up nutrients for further growth.

means to overconsume of marijuana and freak out.  Symptoms include extreme fear, anxiety, paranoia, the inability to move or speak and disorientation.  Over Consumption of concentrates, edibles, moon rocks and dabs are the source of most green outs.  The cure of greenout is to simply relax and wait for the THC to clear the system.  With inhalation, most THC leaves the system in 90 minutes, edibles can take more than 12 hours before a high wears off.

with metal blades or teeth are used to break up marijuana.  Good grinders are equipped with a screen that allows for the collection of kief (fine trichomes).

Grower’s Recommendation

is a document prepared by licensed doctors for medical marijuana patients to treat their conditions and symptoms.  A growing perit allows patients to possess up to 99 plants or possess 8 oz. and in some cases more.

Germination is the first phase of a cannabis plants life, where a seed starts to grow.  Germination is sometimes referred to as seed popping.  Damp, dark and warm conditions cause enzymes in the seed to turn on the DNA, and the cells rapidly grow a root which pierces the shell.  The new root sucks up nutrients for further growth.


in common speak refers to half an ounce of Cannabis which is equivalent to 14 grams.

is a type of compound that forms from a reaction with chlorine, bromine, or fluorine with another element.   Metal halides are used in HID lamps, which are more energy-efficient than mercury-vapor lamps, and have a better spectrum (colors) than narrow spectrum orange high-pressure sodium lamps.

is any of the elements; fluorine, chlorine, bromine, or iodine.  Halogens combined with metals (halide) are used in HID lights and high pressure lamps.

is the toughening of plants in a step by step process.  The hardening-off process is used to adapt from an indoor to an outside environment, by gradually changing the conditions indoors for a period, i.e. change the temperature, stress with fan (wind), less light.

is an oil extracted from cannabis, which is high in THC content  Hash oil is made by extracting the sieved trichome material from the flowers with a solvent, and then the solvent is evaporated, where only the cannabis oil fraction is left behind.

is a highly potent solid concentrate of cannabis.  Hash is a resin-cake substance made by compressing cannabinoid rich glandular trichomes of the cannabis flower. The raw material, plant's trichomes are removed from the flowers by sieving or filtering.  Hashish composition depends on the marijuana strain type used and usually contains high quantities of THC, and varying quantities of CBD, CBN (in aged hashish).

is a world famous family of strains that is thought to originate in Colombia, Mexico and even Thailand and was "perfected" in California by the Haze brothers, and later made it's way to Amsterdam where it became a favorite.  Haze is a tall rangy sativa that is often bred with shorter Indicas to create many hybrids bearing the Haze moniker. Haze genetics buzz is often called electric and creative, which makes it especially for mood disorders like depression.

refers to a cannabis strain taken from its native country and propagated in a different geographic location.

is a variety of cannabis sativa, rich in fiber, protein, oil, and cannabinoids, but lacks THC.

Hemp has been a major commodity for thousands of years and was grown legally in the United States until the 1930s.  The founding fathers, Ben Franklin and Thomas Jefferson were all hemp farmers, for it was required by law, as hemp fiber was an important military commodity used in the fabrication of sails, rope, canvas, clothing, etc.

THC levels in hemp are usually less than 0.3%, the amino acid content is very high in the seeds, the fiber is tougher and more durable than cotton, and the oil can be used as a renewable, carbon neutral diesel replacement fuel.  Hemp was ruled to be illegal in the 1930's, when a syndicate of competing business interests, pulp and paper, cotton, oil and pharmaceutical  lobbied successfully against it.

or in common speak a Hermi, is a shemale plant that possesses both male, female parts within the same plant.  With working male and female sexual organs a Hermi
can self-pollinate or pollinate other Hermi's and females. Too much fun.  Under stress, a female cannabis plant can turn into a hermit, but a male stays "straight" for life.  Grower's usually kill Hermis and males, so that the females will not be pollinated - because unpollinated flowers are much higher in THC and cannabinoid content.

means how many fluctuations or happenings that occur in a second.  60 Hz for example, refers to the frequency of alternating current, where the current reverses direction sixty times per second.

is the tendency of cross-breeds of an animal or plant to have a greater hardiness than its parents.  For example, an F1 hybrid exceeded its parents in size, rate of growth, or resistance to disease.

means to possess both expressed and hidden traits. The information for every trait is held within designated segments (loci) on the genes in chromosomal DNA.  Heterozygous Loci refers a location on the DNA, where there are two traits stored, one tends to be recessive, the other expressed.  For example, you may have brown eyes, but your offspring may have blue eyes. This is true in marijuana as well, as breeders know, the seed of marijuana produces plants contain traits not expressed in the parents, but those found in the ancestors, the great-great grandparents and beyond.

are electrical gas-discharge devices which create light with an electric arc that flows between electrodes in a gas filled tube (lamp).  HID lamps are filled with gas and metal salts.  To light them up, a high voltage is applied that heats and melts the salts, which spark into a plasma (like lightning or the sun).

New HID lamps create more usable visible light per unit of electric power than fluorescent and incandescent lamps, with a greater proportion radiation of visible light as opposed to infrared. HID can deteriorate by 70% over 10,000 hours use.


The most common type of HID lighting is the high pressure sodium lamp.  Advantages of HID is its relatively good quality of light, combined with higher efficiency in power consumption per unit light, as opposed to other forms of lighting, with the exception of LED.

are a couple-mom and dad chromosomes that pair up with each other inside a cell during reproduction or meiosis.  Homologs have the same genes at the same loci (position), where they align with each other before separating during meiosis. This is called Mendelian inheritance, where genetic material is passed to an organism's offspring.

is the oil solvent-extraced from cannabis.  Honey Oil is another word for Hash Oil.

is a honey-like substance secreted onto foliage by aphids, mealybugs, and scale.  As the insect eats plant sap, it poops out sugar.  Honeydew is collected by ants, bees, wasps and birds.  Honeydew is valued for its medicinal properties in parts of Europe and Asia.  However, honeydew is an indication of pest infestation, which robs the plant of its lifeblood, the sap.

is the reflective cover of a grow lamp.

is a stamp indicating that horizontal positioning of HID bulbs is OK.

is a chemical substance that initiates and / or controls growth.  In cannabis cultivation, hormones that promote root, foliage and flowering growth are used at different stages of plant development.  Root-promoting hormones are routinely used to start the life cycle of clones and (cuttings from a marijuana) and seedlings.

is the art, alchemy and science of cultivation or more plainly said, it's the breeding, growing, maintenance and harvesting of plants. Entirely without corporate or government support, the cannabis horticulture industry has become, perhaps the most sophisticated and scientific and certainly the most profitable crop on the planet.

is a water outlet with an on/off valve - the thing you connect a hose to.

is an environment that is harsh, nasty, unfriendly and inhospitable.  In marijuana cultivation, the aim is to provide a hospitable environment for plants, while simultaneously providing a hostile environment for pests and disease.

is a popular organic fertilizer.  Humus is composed of partially decomposed plants or animals and their byproducts mixed with soil .

refers to a plant that a cross between two distinctly separate strains of cannabis.  Popular hybrids often contain Sativa and Indica genetics.   Hybrids are produced to obtain qualities of both parents.  For example, a Sativa strain that grows tall can be bred with an Indica, that is shorter and stockier, to produce something in between.  Almost all marijuana sold commercially is technically a hybrid, more or less.

refers to the offspring from two plants of the same species, but are distinctly different breeds, with varying traits and genetic make-up.  In cannabis, there are two main breeds of cannabis, Sativa and Indica.  Sativas tend to be tall and narrow with energising psychoactive effects, while Indica tends to be shorter and stockier with sedating effects.  

Blue Dream is a popular example of a hybrid strain, being a cross of Blueberry and Haze, with body high of an Indica and the cerebral effects of a Sativa.

means to breed more energy, strength and punch by crossing two distant relatives, where offspring tend to be more robust, grow faster, and are more resistant to disease, as compared to cross-breeding within the same gene-pool for many generations.

refers to a growing medium that has no soil where nutrients are delivered in a water solution to roots in a hydroponic system.

is an extraction process that uses hydrocarbons, including butane, propane, pentane,hexane, naptha, etc.

is a gas not normally found in air, but is a basic element found in all life forms, water, and petroleum. Cannabinoids, THC, terpenes all contain major quantities of hydrogen.  Hydrogen gas is light, colorless, odorless, highly flammable, which combines with oxygen upon ignition to produce pure water H2O.  Hydrogen peroxide H2O2) can be diluted with water and sprayed on foliage, as both a nutrient and /or remedy for sick plants.  

refers to the cultivating plants without soil. Rather, in hydroponics, plants receive their nutrients in a water solution that is applied directly to their root systems, and may be supported by an inert medium, such as perlite or gravel.  For growers, hydroponics offers near total control over the growing environment.  The nutrients used in hydroponics are typically derived from fish byproducts, duck manure, or big-agriculture fertilizers and nutrients.

Random soil contains unknown amounts of bacterial, insects, seeds, nutrients, particles and varying pH that can greatly affect the outcome.  In hydroponic grows, weed issues are non existent, pH and nutrients can be controlled precisely.  Some consumers claim that hydroponic marijuana tastes distinctly cleaner, crisper and the effects are "clearer".  While hydroponic growing is a departure from nature, if hearty seed is used in combination with only organic nutrients, then theoretically, the product is 100% organic.

an instrument that measures humidity, which is the amount of water vapor contained in the air.  Air can hold more water as the temperature rises, relative humidity refers to the saturation point of water in air, given a certain temperature.   Marijuana seeds germinate best in conditions of high humidity, with 70% humidity considered optimal by some growers during the first five weeks, switching to 40% humidity till flowering.


stands for inbred line, where a strain is genetically homogeneous (the same).  IBL seeds grow uniformly, to consistently produce plants with similar traits, such as size, potency of THC, fragrance (terpene content) etc.

means a document issued by the State Department of Health Services that document identifies a person authorized to engage in the medical use of marijuana and the person’s designated primary caregiver, if any.

means the universal identification certificate program for commercial medical cannabis activity authorized by this chapter.

is the process of breeding cannabis plants, solely from a single lot of seeds of the same variety, without external interbreeding or pollination from other cannabis varieties.

is one of the four main species of cannabis which include; Indica, Sativa, Ruderalis and Hemp.  Indica and Sativa have become the dominant species in the marijuana industry.

In comparison to Sativa, Indica is shorter with broader leaves, making it a favorite for indoor growing.   The effects of Indica tend to be relaxing and sedating.  THC and CBD levels are found in similar quantities in nature, but over the past 20 years, through selective breeding, the THC content of most Indica strains has risen dramatically  Recently, CBD rich Indicas have been brought back into the public domain, due to a great increase in demand for non-psychoactive medical marijuana.

is the most abundant naturally occurring hormone found in cannabis and most plants.  IAA is classified as an Auxin. Auxins play an essential role in coordinating many growth and behavioral processes in the plant's life cycle and are essential for stem and foliage development.

IAA is predominantly produced in cells of the apex (bud) and in the very young leaves of a plant.  IAA induces cell elongation and division, while serving as a signaling molecule to develop plant organs and coordinate growth.  IAA is soluble in polar organic solvents, i.e. water.  IAA is finicky in solution and is not so widely used artificially, because it is readily metabolized into inactive forms in the plant.  Sun light also degrades IAA.

means to make something happen.  i.e. 12 hours of darkness  with 12 hours of light each day, will induce (stimulate) cannabis flowering.

in cannabis cultivation terminology means to cause a plant to flower by changing the number of hours it is exposed to light.  Plants grown indoor usually receive 16 hours per day of light in the vegetative stage of growth.  When the foliage and stem is adequately developed, the inductive photoperiod commences, where the lights are kept on 9 to 12 hours, with 12 to 15 hours of darkness.

refers to a substance that essentially does nothing, in the sense that it does not react chemically in a process.  Inert growing mediums don't supply nutrients to a plant, but they provide structural support, which allows nutrient solution access the roots.  Volcanic rocks are an example of an inert medium. Soil is not an inert growing medium.

is a cluster or bunch of flowers on a plant.  

is a substance that kills insects or deters them from feeding.  Cannabis does not generally respond well to pesticides and toxic chemicals, that can render the product unsafe.   Natural biological pesticides are typically low in toxicity (to mammals and humans) and are grealty preferred, accepted by the cannabis industry. Examples of natural insecticides include; neem oil, pine oil soap solution, vinegar,  pyridine, non-detergent soap, ground red pepper or chilli powder, essential oils, peppermint. salt, citrus oil, onion and garlic spray, and tobacco oil.

It is illegal to use many types of chemical insecticides in cannabis cultivation.  The discovery of illegal pesticides used in marijuana cultivation will result in heavy fines, loss of goodwill and even bankruptcy of the rogue operation.

means the strength of a light;  i.e. the closer a plant is moved toward a light, the greater the intensity.

is a hermaphrodite (she-male), a plant that has both staminate (male) flowers and pistillate (female) flowers.

is a plant that exhibits both male and female sexual characteristics.

is a process that injects desirable genetics into a strain, which complements its family's existing qualities. In introgression, new gene flow is achieved by repeatedly backcrossing a hybrid with one of its parents. Purposeful introgression is a long-term process; so it may take many generations before the desired backcrossing occurs.

refers to hash oil made by using isopropyl alcohol as a solvent to extract the oils of cannabis, which includes psychoactive (THC) and medicinal ingredients. Preparing QWISO (quick wash Iso) hash requires 70%+ isopropyl alcohol, coffee filters, a hot plate and marijuana. Ground flowers are soaked in the alcohol at low heat, the fiber is filtered off, and then the alcohol is evaporated off by heating.  The remaining product is ISO Hash Oil.  Isopropyl alcohol is slightly toxic, so non-toxic grain alcohol (ethanol) is the much preferred solvent.  Alcohol extractions are safer and less flammable than butane, which is commonly used in the manufacture of hash oil.  Unlike the more selective butane, isopropyl extracts a portion of the chlorophyll along with the oils.  Chlorophyll is removed using a quick wash method known as “QWISO”.


refers to the protective envelop of a bulb or lamp.

is a marijuana cigarette, where ground cannabis is rolled in paper and smoked.  Joints usually contain 0.5 to 1.0 grams of marijuana.  A one gram joint made from a strain with 20% THC content will be 200mg.  Smoking is perhaps 60% efficient, which means the dose is in the range of 120mg.

When a joint is lit, the THC and cannabinoids decarboxylate, which makes them psychoactive or more bioactive.  The effects from a joint last about 90 minutes.  Vaporizers are preferalble to joints, because Vapes burn weed cleaner and is less wasteful, more efficient


is the raw ingredient of Hash. Kief is a term for the trichomes from marijuana flowers, that have been harvested and separated. Trichomes produce sticky crystals - or resin - that contain the vast majority of the plant's cannabinoids, including THC.  Traditionally, kief is compressed into cakes to create hashish, which allows for convenient storage and consumption. Kief is extremely potent and is sometimes mistakenly referred to as pollen.  

Using a three-chamber herb grinder, cannabis flowers are ground, where fine kief crystals fall through a screen, where they are collected.  Kief is much higher in concentration of psychoactive cannabinoids, such as THC, in comparison to the whole cannabis flower.  


refers to a traditional Moroccan mix of chopped marijuana and native tobacco. To be sure, Kif however does not refer to hash, which is concentrated and pressed trichromes.  Kif is usually smoked with a long pipe called a sebsi.

is a measure of electric power - one kWh means 1000 watts power consumption over an hour.  

The price of one kWH in California was about 18 cents in 2016.  A watt equals the amperage (amps) multiplied by the voltage. One kW is 1000 watts.   A 10 amp lighting setup that runs on a 110v circuit consumes 1100 watts or 1.1Kw.  Over one hour, the power consumption is 1.1 KWh. Running these lights for 10 hours will consume 11 KWh at a cost of $1.80.

refers to a very popular line of Indica cannabis strains, with genetics that hail from the Hindu Kush mountains in Afghanistan and Pakistan. Kush has a unique aroma, described as earthy, piney with sweet citrus overtones.


means an agreement between a licensee and a bona fide labor organization that, at a minimum, protects the state’s proprietary interests by prohibiting labor organizations and members from engaging in picketing, work stoppages, boycotts, and any other economic interference with the applicant’s business. This agreement means that the applicant has agreed not to disrupt efforts by the bona fide labor organization to communicate with, and attempt to organize and represent, the applicant’s employees. The agreement shall provide a bona fide labor organization access at reasonable times to areas in which the applicant’s employees work, for the purpose of meeting with employees to discuss their right to representation, employment rights under state law, and terms and conditions of employment. This type of agreement shall not mandate a particular method of election or certification of the bona fide labor organization.

refers to wild cannabis, or plants that have been breeding for many decades, where nature selects the fittest, without interference from man.  The "original" genetics of cannabis are preserved in the wild landraces.  Landrace genetics vary throughout the world.  Landraces obviously grow well outdoors, are hardy and disease resistant.  THC values are not usually the highest in landraces, but tend to have a higher content of CBD and other accessory cannabinoids. .  Cross breeding with landraces is a way to regenerate and rebuild a high THC strain, that has become weak through inbreeding.

means to dissolve in water slowly, i.e. minerals leach out of soil into water, where the plant's roots can absorbs them.

is a very efficient, long lasting, popular, high quality light source.  LED systems can be programmed to radiate specific colors at different phases of the growth cycle.

LED stands for light-emitting diode, which is a two-lead semiconductor, which emits light when a voltage is applied to the leads.  When electrons flow from one material into another in the LED, energy is released in the form of photons, which is to say, light.  Different kinds of LED lights give off a specific assortment of colors.  Using a combination of different LED types is used to achieve nearly full spectrum emission, with useful intensities (to plants) from all colors of the rainbow.

is displacing HID in the cannabis grow industry, as it has becomes more affordable and better in quality / efficiency.

refers to a cannabis plant that is especially tall, with few leaves.  Leggy plants usually result from poor lighting.  In nature, other plants create a canopy that blocks light to underlings.  As a defense, underling plants such as marijuana, grow upward in an effort to punch through the canopy, where there's an abundance of unabstructed light.

Type 1 = Cultivation; Specialty outdoor; Small.
Type 1A = Cultivation; Specialty indoor; Small.
Type 1B = Cultivation; Specialty mixed-light; Small.
Type 2 = Cultivation; Outdoor; Small.
Type 2A = Cultivation; Indoor; Small.
Type 2B = Cultivation; Mixed-light; Small.
Type 3 = Cultivation; Outdoor; Medium.
Type 3A = Cultivation; Indoor; Medium.
Type 3B = Cultivation; Mixed-light; Medium.
Type 4 = Cultivation; Nursery.
Type 6 = Manufacturer 1.
Type 7 = Manufacturer 2.
Type 8 = Testing.
Type 10 = Dispensary; General.
Type 10A = Dispensary; No more than three retail sites.
Type 11 = Distribution.
Type 12 = Transporter.

is a licensed state physician that is legally authorized to recommend cannabis to patients to treat their conditions and symptoms.  A MMJ doctor's recommendation is a document that is used to purchase medical marijuana at access points; dispensaries, cooperatives, delivery services and other suppliers of cannabis based medicines.  Telemedicine is a program that allows medical marijuana doctors to consult with patients and recommend medical marijuana remotely, over the internet.

means a person issued a state license to engage in commercial cannabis activity.

means the state agency responsible for the issuance, renewal, or reinstatement of the license, or the state agency authorized to take disciplinary action against the license.

is the lifestory of plant; from birth to death, including pollination, seed, germination, seedling, vegetative, and flowering, and finally death.  Each phase of the life cycle thrives optimally under different conditions of light, humidity, temperature, nutrients and hormone types and levels.

is a device that moves lighting, in and around plants, to provide even lighting to all parts of the plants.  Light movers usually rotate back and forth or in a circle.

refers to the cutting of the lower branches or secondary growth of a cannabis plants.  Limbing diverts more plant energy to the upper foliage or primary growth, which tends to generate higher yields of flowers. 

is made from crushed rock high in calcium carbonate.  Limestone can refer to the mineral dolomite, or calcium hydroxide "lime", which is used to deacidify soil and raise pH.  Lime is also a valuable source of bioavailable calcium.

is the most common terpene found in citrus and is also found in certain varieties of cannabis. Terpenes are fragrant compounds with many medicinal properties.  Limonene is used clinically to dissolve gallstones. It's also used for heartburn and mood improvement.  It has anti-microbial  properties and has been shown to kill pathogenic bacteria.  In clinical investigations, limonene was found to kill breast cancer cells.  Strains bearing the name Lemon, such as Lemon Kush are particularly high in Limonene.

is the main terpenoid of lavender.  This piney, floral smelling essential oil is also found in significant quantities in select cannabis strains as well.  Linalool is known to counter anxiety and stress by amplifying serotonin-receptor transmission.  Linalool is a strong anticonvulsant and is also a folk remedy for acne and burns without scarring.

is used to measure the acid levels of soil, water and other substances.  This special paper changes color when inserted into a solution, where different colors indicate the levels of pH, on a scale where 1.0 to 7.0 is acidic - 7.0 is neutral - and 7.0 to 12 is alkaline.

means living medical cannabis flowers and plants, including seeds, immature plants, and vegetative stage plants.

is a rich organic soil mixture composed of sand silt and clay.

means an official document granted by a local jurisdiction that specifically authorizes a person to conduct commercial cannabis activity in the local jurisdiction.

means an official document granted by a local jurisdiction that specifically authorizes a person to conduct commercial cannabis activity in the local jurisdiction.

is a position on a chromosome where a specific gene is located.

means a batch, or a specifically identified portion of a batch, having uniform character and quality within specified limits. In the case of medical cannabis or a medical cannabis product produced by a continuous process, lot means a specifically identified amount produced in a unit of time or a quantity in a manner that ensures its having uniform character and quality within specified limits.

is a measure of light output - one lumen is equal to the amount of light emitted by one candle, that falls on one square foot of surface, located one foot away from a standard sized candle.


are essential minerals that are required by a plant in large amounts.  Macronutrients are often added to soils via chemical or organic fertilizers.  Macronutrients include nitrogen (nitrates-NO3), potassium, phosphorus (phosphates-PO4)).  Secondary macronutrients include sulfur, magnesium and calcium.  Fertile soil contains about (bioavailable) 20 ppm nitrate NO3, 50 ppm phosphorus as phosphate PO4, and 30 ppm potassium.

means to clean up a cannabis plant by cutting off superfluous, so that the plant's energy and available light goes into the production of flowers (buds), which have the highest levels of cannabinoids, including THC.

means raw cannabis that has undergone a process whereby the raw agricultural product has been transformed into a concentrate, an edible product, or a topical product.

means a person that conducts the production, preparation, propagation, or compounding of manufactured medical cannabis, as described in subdivision (ae), or medical cannabis products either directly or indirectly or by extraction methods, or independently by means of chemical synthesis or by a combination of extraction and chemical synthesis at a fixed location that packages or repackages medical cannabis or medical cannabis products or labels or relabels its container, that holds a valid state license pursuant to this chapter, and that holds a valid local license or permit.

for manufacturing sites that produce medical cannabis products using nonvolatile solvents.

for manufacturing sites that produce medical cannabis products using volatile solvents. The State Department of Public Health shall limit the number of licenses of this type.

means a location that produces, prepares, propagates, or compounds manufactured medical cannabis or medical cannabis products, directly or indirectly, by extraction methods, independently by means of chemical synthesis, or by a combination of extraction and chemical synthesis, and is owned and operated by a licensee for these activities.

or cannabis, is a plant that has been recognized, for thousands of years, as a highly valuable medicinal herb.  Marijuana contains substances called cannabinoids, which mimic compounds of the human body called endocannabinoids, which are essential to many cerebral and bodily functions.  Cannabinoids work medicinally by modulating receptors that control pain, inflammation, immune cells, mood, cell division, bone growth, cardiovascular function among many other functions.  


THC is the most famous ingredient of marijuana.  THC is both highly medicinal and is psychoactive. CBD is the second most popular cannabinoid.  CBD is non-psychoactive and is perhaps the most potent of all marijuana's medicinal ingredients.  Marijuana contains about 100 other cannabinoids, most with either established or speculative medicinal properties.  Marijuana also contains large amounts of essential oils, whic is a mixture of a wide array of terpenes.  Terpenes are fragrant and volatile molecules, that are medicinal in their own right, and have been found to compliment the effects of both THC and CBD.


Cannabis was declared illegal in the United States in 1934, after nearly two hundreds of use in medicine and industry.  In alliance with the UN, the US government coerced much of the world into believing that marijuana was an evil and dangerous substance, while approving many more dangerous and toxic synthetic drugs. In the period, from 1934 to 2010, marijuana became an illegal drug throughout most of the world.  In the 21st century, many countries have come to recognized the value of cannabis as a save and valuable medicine.  As a result, most countries have, or are in the process of legalizing medical and recreational marijuana.    

As of 2017, the clear majority citizens from Western countries approve of marijuana legalization; while their so-called democratic governments stonewall or complicate the process. The UN continues to work against marijuana as a medicine or as a recreational drug as well, which influences the third world to maintain their anti-marijuana stance.  The marijuana issue serves to illustrate clearly, that the worlds governments do not represent the wishes of the people.  Rather, governments are compliant with a cartel of multi-national corporations; alcohol, pharmaceutical, oil, pulp and paper, cotton, private prisions, etc.

This group's well financed lobby groups continue to push against marijuana as a recreational and medical drug.  The current  trend is to allow marijuana legalization, but under only under extremely complicated regulations, which are designed to squeeze out  the small businessmen, allowing big business interests dominate, such as Monsanto.

means a product containing cannabis, including, but not limited to, concentrates and extractions, intended to be sold for use by medical cannabis patients in California pursuant to the Compassionate Use Act of 1996 (Proposition 215), found at Section 11362.5 of the Health and Safety Code. For the purposes of this chapter, medical cannabis does not include industrial hemp as defined by Section 81000 of the Food and Agricultural Code or Section 11018.5 of the Health and Safety Code.

means a product containing cannabis, including, but not limited to, concentrates and extractions, intended to be sold for use by medical cannabis patients in California pursuant to the Compassionate Use Act of 1996 (Proposition 215), found at Section 11362.5 of the Health and Safety Code. For the purposes of this chapter, medical cannabis does not include industrial hemp as defined by Section 81000 of the Food and Agricultural Code or Section 11018.5 of the Health and Safety Code.

A medical marijuana card is a state issued identification card that enables a patient with a doctor's recommendation to obtain, possess, or cultivate cannabis for medicinal use. These cards are issued by a state or county in which medical cannabis is recognized. Typically a patient is required to pay a fee to the state in order to obtain a medical marijuana card.  In most states with medical marijuana card programs, the card is valid for up to 12 months and may be renewed. Marijuana legal states also have different requirements for obtaining a medical marijuana card.

is a document that allows a patient to buy medical marijuana. A written medical marijuana recommendation is completed by a licensed doctor after reviewing their conditions and symptoms.  MMJ recommendations can be acquired at a doctor's office, at a cannabis clinic or from a medical doctor online.

is a type of pruning that stimulates a cannabis plant to grow fatter and bushier.  Growers discovered that the green shoot tips at the top of a cannabis plant directs much of its growth.  Meristem tip pruning exploits this apical (at the top) control, whereby growth hormones are diverted down the stem to stimulate massive cell division, which results in the rapid sprouting of new branches.


is a milligram or 1/1000 of a gram.  Medicinal doses of THC and CBD range from the tens to hundreds of mg.  As little as 10 mg THC can be too much for some novice patients. On the other end of the spectrum, ss much as 1000 mg or more of THC and CBD is used to curtail or kill cancerous tumors.


is a very small distance.  A micron is one-millionth of a meter.  This very tiny distance is used to describe the size of things like bacteria.

are essential elements required for the healthy growth of plants and animals. Micronutrients include iron, manganese, boron, molybdenum, zinc and copper.  Superior fertilizers and hydroponic nutrient mixes contain a suite of micronutrients in addition to macro nutrients of N-P-K.

is 0.04 inch, or about the width of a big toe nail.

is fine droplets of liquid.  In marijuana cultivation, a mist of water, with or without additives, is created using a spray bottle or irrigation hose.

is a state licensed doctor who consults with patients about the use of medical marijuana.  A MMJ doctor typically evaluates patients conditions and symptoms and considers if marjuana might afford medical benefits.  If so, the physician issues a written medical marijuana recommendation, which allows patients to legally purchase medical cannabis within their home state.

measures the amount of moisture in vegetation, soil and other materials.  A certified moisture meter operated by a competent technician, useing an appropriate test methodology, is required to get accurate results.  Pin-type moisture meters measure the electrical resistance between two electrodes. When moisture is present within wood or dense fiber, electric resistance is lower, and conversely, dry material has a higher resistance.  Fresh cannabis contains about 75% water, which is removed by drying or curing. The optimal moisture content of dried cannabis is around 3-4%.

in Latin, mono means only one and chrom means light, so a monochromatic lamp produces but one color or at least a narrow bandwidth of colors.  For example, sodium lamps are referred to as monochromatic because they produce predominantly yellow light.

is a single plant with both male (staminate flowers) and female (pistillate flowers) reproductive systems.

means the form and structure of a thing, the expression of, or the study of.  i.e. In cannabis plants, slight differences in the male and female morphology aid in identifying the sex.

is the earth, the moon, the sun and all the forces and particles that intertwine to form the soil, the weather, climate, environment, and the stars above.  Mother nature is the substrate of of all living things.  

is a female marijuana plant with flowers that contain an ovary and but no pollen. In cannabis cultivation, the female is held in a vegetative state by manipulating growing conditions to produce robust foliage where cuttings are taken to clone other offspring.  A mother plant may originate either from a seed or from another clone. 

is made from old leaves, shredded paper, chunky soil, gravel, wood chips, etc.  Mulch is used as a protective covering for soil and compost to keeps soil moist. However too much mulch cover can promote undesirable fungus growth. Outdoors, a good spread of mulch helps soil retain moisture and encourage composting.

is a change in the genetic material caused by radiation, chemicals, stress or at random. Mutated DNA code sequences result in physical changes that are mostly useless or dysfunctional..  Mutated offspring usually die off, however some rearrangements of the DNA can be workable in an organism.  New strains can be created by selecting plants that show useful mutant traits.

are threadlike roots of fungi.  Mycelium can form large masses within soil or its host medium.  A certain amount of friendly mycelium is an essential part of good fertile organic soil.  A little stress from soil mycelium cause plants to develop their immune system, complete with antifungal molecules, that are especially desirable in the vegetables and herbs that we eat. Fungicides that kill all mycelium lead to the development of plants with stunted immune systems and provide lesser amounts of natural disease fighting compounds to human consumers.  Alternately, dark, damp and overly acidic soils promote an overgrowth of fungus, which damages or infects the most hearty of plants.  Some herbicides and fungicides, especially those produced by Monsanto, have been implicated in killing healthy soil flora (bacteria and fungus) while promoting bad and toxic microbe growth, including fungi.  

is a musky and earthy smelling component of certain strains of cannabis.  Myrcene is a terpene, which is a class of compounds that have fragrant and medicinal properties.

Myrcene acts a sedative, a muscle relaxant, an analgesic and has anti-inflammatory properties.  This musky terpene works together with THC to produce the infamous “couch-lock” effect of marijuana.


indicate the ratios of essential macro nutrient ratios in chemical fertilizers.  N = nitrogen, P = phosphorus, K = potassium.  NPH fertilizer is added to promote growth of foliage and roots, which are essential to high yields of cannabinoid rich flowers..  

Example: 18−51−20   label means 18% elemental N - 51% phosphate (PO4) - 20% K20

is a very small distance used to describe atomic sized things like the wavelengths of light..  One nanometer (nm) is one billionth or a meter. The number of nanometers are used to measure presicely the color; infrared light is 1000 nm or more, reds are around 700 nm, greens peg 530 nm, blue 450 nm, violet 420, and ultra violet 300 or less.  The shorter the wavelenght - the less nm - light has, the more energy it has.  Marijuana plants absorb and grow best with with red and blue light, but not the green.  Hence, wavelengths around 700 and 450 nm are good while 530 nm are is generally undesirable for vegetative growth.   

refers to a severely damaged area of a plant, that results in local death.  In cannabis plants, necrosis is caused by physical contact, pests and disease that sever the flow of nutrients to the affected area.

is an essential element for plant growth found in fertilizer, roots, tubers, urine and feces of animals. Nitrogen is a necessary ingredient of fertile soils and may be added as nitrate (NO3 or ammonia HH4).  Soil bacteria fix nitrogen from the atmosphere in the soil, enhancing soil fertility.  Too much nitrogen will stunt plant growth and yields while encouraging overgrowth of organisms like algae. Nitrogen requirements of cannabis are 1 pound of nitrogen (as nitrate) for 100 pounds of plant material grown.

is a joint structure on a marijuana plant where either a leaf, flower or new branch shoot grows.

is a facility where seeds, seedlings and immature plants are nursed to good health, at which point they can be easily transplanted and grow to form a healthy adult.

means a licensee that produces only clones, immature plants, seeds, and other agricultural products used specifically for the planting, propagation, and cultivation of medical cannabis.

is a substance that is required for health in a plant or individual.  In marijuana cultivation, nutrients usually refer to the basic elemental requirements of the soil, which are NPK, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium and micronutrients, copper, zinc, manganese, and sulfur..  Too much or too little nutrient will result in unhealthy plants and suboptimal yields.


is a term that describe a basket of popular strains, which generally originate in Southern California, The original name is Ocean Grown Kush which was shortened to OG Kush. OG Kush grew quickly in fame and reputation.

OG Kush strains are famous for relieving stress and elevating mood, while dampening migraine and ADD. OG should smell of lemon and pine.

applies to a circuit, the current is always equals the voltage multiplied by the resistance.

Power is amps that a device draws (consumes) multiplied by the voltage of the circuit.  High voltage with high amperage means high power consumption.  a circuit with high voltage with a tiny amperage (current draw) device consumes moderate amounts of power.

refers to any kind hash oil, extracted in any way, whether it be butane, hydrocarbon, alcohol, or CO2.

means to pollinate naturally by the wind, an insect or an animal, as opposed to a human that transports pollen from the male to female sexual organs, using a fan, brush or other device.

is the amount that gives the best result.   For example, cannabis cultivators strive, through trial and error, to find the optimal amount of nutrients that are most favorable to the ample production of buds high in THC, other cannabinoids and terpenes.

means composed of, or derived from, an organism / life form.  Most consumers want organic cannabis.  Organic cultivation methods use organic fertilizers and natural products.  Many growers consider unaltered rock powders to also be organic.  Anything that is synthesized, or produced by chemical companies like Monsanto, are considered to be NOT organic.

is a process where the concentration equalizes. When two solutions with differing concentrations of solute are separated by a semipermeable membrane, the solvent will travel to the area where the concentration of solute is higher.   For example, when a high salt water solution is separated from a weakly-salty water solution by a semipermeable membrane, then water from the low salt solution flows into the high salt solution, until the salt concentration is equal on both sides.

In plants, the cells store sugars, nutrients and proteins while allowing water in but most foreign substances out.  Water can flow through the cell membrane by osmosis as  high concentrations of solutes create a differential.  As a result, cells swell up, creating a counter pressure, which causes a plant to stand tall and plump.  Osmosis can be made to do work by taping the mechanical work from the flow from high to low concentration.

oz, which is equivalent to 28.3g is generally the maximum amount a medical marijuana patient can possess legally.  

is the breeding between male and female cannabis plants that are not closely related.  Outbreeding is used to introduce new, different genetic material that beefs up, enhances a strain that is perhaps overly inbred and tired.

means breeding a local cannabis strain with a different population of the same strain or closely related group.  

is an electrical term where too many electrical devices (lights, computers, heaters, etc) consume more power than a circuit can handle. For example, a 20 amp circuit can handle about 17 amps (sum of devices turned on in the circuit) before the circuit breaker blows, thus protecting the wires from overheating, which will short the circuit or start a fire.

is the container for the egg which contains the female DNA. In cannabis, when pollen lands on the stigma (part of the flower), it navigates down the the pollen tube, and then enters the ovule, where it fuses to the egg, and becomes a seed.  

is a gas found in the air that is essential to all life forms.  Without oxygen, most animals die within minutes.  When plants breathe (absorb) carbon dioxide they exhale oxygen. Oxygen normally exists as O2, but can break down with ultraviolet light to form O3 which is highly reactive.



is an organism that lives on or another life form (host) without benefit. For example, fungus is a parasite that sometimes colonizes on a cannabis plant, which does nothing but harm the plant.  The fungal infection however, will encourage the plant to produce antifungal compounds like cannabinoids and terpenes.  In general, however, fungus and parasites are very bad news to growers and consumers.

in a hydroponic system the slow movement of a nutrient solution through adsorption or capillary action is referred to as passive.

is something that can cause a disease, usually a microorganism, especially bacteria, fungi, and viruses.

is old decayed vegetation or organic matter formed under extremely moist, cold, and acidic conditions.  Peat decays very slowly.  Peat is used to help retain moisture in container soil. Peat can also prevent an excess of water from killing the roots. Peat can absorb and store nutrients, although it is not fertile itself.

is a plant that lives several years, such as a tree or shrub.  marijuana is not a perennial, for all intents and purposes.

is an inert porous volcanic glass.  Perlite is used as a hydroponic growing medium.

means an official document granted by a local jurisdiction that specifically authorizes a person to conduct commercial cannabis activity in the local jurisdiction.

means an individual, firm, partnership, joint venture, association, corporation, limited liability company, estate, trust, business trust, receiver, syndicate, or any other group or combination acting as a unit and includes the plural as well as the singular number.

means an individual who is a qualified patient who has applied for and received a valid identification card pursuant to this article.


is a measure of acidity.  In cannabis cultivation, growers like the soil pH to be slightly acidic or neutral (6.5-7.5). pH that is acidic measures less than 7.0 pH units.  More than 7.0 units means the medium is alkaline.

is a small instrument that measures the pH (acidity or alkalinity) of a substance, such as soil or water. 


is the genetics that are expressed or visible.  In cannabis,the phenotype refers to characteristics like smell, height, cannabinoid content and other properties.  Cannabis seed from a plant contains many unexpressed genes, which are passed onto future generations.

layers are used in metal halide lamps to improve the balance of light by producing a wider light spectrum.  White LED lamps have a blue or ultraviolet emitter, with a phosphor coating that  causes it to emit at longer wavelengths, to deliver a broader spectrum.

is a coating used in internal fluorescent bulbs.  Bulbs are coated with phosphor which adds colors and intensity to the the radiated light.

a basic essential macronutrient, especially important in the growth of a cannabis plant and its flowers and roots.

means how long the lights are turned on.  In cannabis cultivation, different photoperiods are used to promote vegetative or flower growth.  For example, the vegetative cycle is usually 16 to 24 hours with lights on, while in flowering, lighting is usually 12 hours light, 12 hours dark.

is the basic-core reaction in plants, that allows nearly all life on the planet to exist.  In a miracle, sunlight from the nuclear sun is absorbed by a leaf, and a chemical reaction takes place, where the air and water is converted by mother nature into sugar.  i.e.  H2O (water) plus CO2 (carbon dioxide) plus light energy captured by chlorophyll,  reacts to form glucose (sugar) and exhale oxygen.  Chlorophyll looks green in color because it reflects green, while absorbing the other colors.   This means that cannabis grows best with reds, yellow, white and blue lights, but not green.  In fact, green light is considered to be somewhat toxic to plants.

is a plants respond to different amounts of light, or its response to movement toward or away from a light source.

is the study and description of leaves, how they come to be arranged in the foliage of a plant.

means a chemical compound that is unique to and derived from cannabis.

is an enclosed area, like a greenhouse, that is used for growing and studying plants.  

is a substance that absorbs certain colors and reflects others.  The color of a pigment is determined by the light that is reflected, which is the color that the eye sees. For example, the pigment chlorophyll absorbs most colors but reflects greens. This is why plants appear green in color.

is a medicinal terpene, commonly found in pine and many other plants .  Pinene is often the most abundant component of many strains of cannabis oil, apart from cannabinoids THC and CBD..  This evergreen scented terpene works as a bronchodilator, promotes alertness and enhances memory. Chemically, pinenes assist cognition by inhibiting the breakdown neurotransmitters that ignites brain activity.  

is the female plant's sexual organ parts. In cannabis, the pistil can be identified by the little hair-like extensions on the flowers.  Pistil's range in color from white to red to orange-brown. When plants are mature, the pistil collects the pollen (containing male sperm) from the air, an insect or human (brush).  If cannabis plants are left unfertilized, the flowers produce much more THC and cannabinoids.

is the male reproductive material (sperm). which is transported by wind, insects or artificially to the female pistil, where it fertilizes and embryo to form offspring, a seed. Pollen has a fine, yellow, dust-like appearance.

is found in male flowers and contains the male sperm (pollen).  Pollen sacks are located on the stem.  A pollen sac and female pistil look the same until they mature, when the female sprouts hair like appendages while a pollen sac saggs down.

is the transfer of pollen from the male flower-anther to the female flower-stigma.  Pollen can originate in the same plant (Hermaphrodite) or come from a different female or hermaphrodite.  Pollination results in the production of seeds, which causes the production of THC and cannabinoids in the plant to decline rapidly.  To avoid unwanted pollination, growers remove (or kill) all male and hermie plants from their grow areas.

results when two different hybrids are crossed.  

is a nickname for marijuana or cannabis.

is an essential macronutrient for both plant and animal.   Potassium assists in water respiration (transport of water throughout the plant), photosynthesis, the strengthening and thickening of stems, and its resistance to disease.  Leaves with a potassium deficiency turn yellow, brown, or appear burnt around the edges and tips.

is a marijuana cigarette already rolled, usually provided for sale by a dispensary or delivery service.

means the individual, designated by a qualified patient or by a person with an identification card, who has consistently assumed responsibility for the housing, health, or safety of that patient or person.

is a California State law, where the use of recreational marijuana is declared legal under the provisions of the Adult Use of Marijuana Act of November 8.  This 62-page legislation specifies the conditions of use, sales, cultivation and issues.


  • allow persons 21 years or older to possess up to 1 ounce of marijuana and to cultivate up to six plants for personal use.
  • regulates and taxes the production, manufacture, and sale of marijuana.
  • rewrite criminal records so as to reduce the common marijuana felonies to misdemeanors and allow offenders of the prior law to petition for a reduction of charges.


stands for post traumatic stress disorder, a common psychological condition that affects a

large percentage of soldiers, most rape victims and others subject to extreme events that

cause mental trauma.  Medical Marijuana has been shown to be very effective in PTSD.

refers to any kind purple cannabis bud.  Purps is most commonly used to describe the true Purple group of strains which includes Grandaddy Purple, Purple Kush, Purple Urkle, and Grape Ape.

Most purp varieties are thought to originate from the 1980's Dutch Purple #1 line of genetics. Since then purple weed has spread across the world.  


is a slang term for a quarter pound of marijuana. Possession of a QP is over the legally allowed amount in most jurisdictions.

is 1/4 ounce of cannabis, or 7 grams.  


is the root tip of a seedling that that grows into the main stem.

is the root tip of a seedling that grows to form the main plant stem.

is short for a medical marijuana recommendation.  A Rec is a document produced by a licensed medical physician that allows for the possession and purchase of cannabis based medicines from access points; dispensaries, delivery services, etc..

means to recycle a nutrient solution used in a hydroponic system.

means to recycle a nutrient solution used in a hydroponic system.  Recovery can also refer to the activity where a cannabis extraction solvent is volatilized (evaporated), and collected for reuse.  Terpenes can also be recovered in concentration processes as well.

is the consumption of cannabis for personal enjoyment; to get high, to relax, or feel more creative.  Recreational (Rec) users, infact may be unknowingly treating an underlying condition, such as anxiety, or an endocannabinoid deficiency, which dampens cerebral processes.  Adults can purchase recreational marijuana in States where it is legal from designated Rec dispensaries, but not necessarily medical dispensaries, where the quailty of cannabis is usually higher.  Rec dispensaries generally have a lower quality in staff and service.

is a famous propaganda film financed by the US Federal Government, that is directed against the smoking of marijuana. At the crux of the script, students fall prey to marijuana, which leads to hit and run accidents, manslaughter, suicide, attempted rape, while they hallucinate, and descent into general madness and hopeless.  Today, the anti-marijuana propaganda film Reefer Madness is popular for its humorous, jaw dropping unintentionally satirical content.

means a state license issued pursuant to this chapter.

means to produce new vegetative growth by lengthening the lighting period and adding nutrients. i.e. the photoperiod is changed from 12 hours to 18 hours.

means to produce new vegetative growth by lengthening the lighting period and adding nutrients. i.e. the photoperiod is changed from 12 hours to 18 hours.

is a measure of the amount of moisture in the air.  Relative humidity compares the percentage of water vapor the air can hold (saturated) at a given temperature.  

refers to a black, tar-like substance rich in cannabinoids, including the material that accumulates in a well used pipe.

are the tiny pours on trichomes that are found mostly in the flowers (bud), but also the leaves and foliage of cananbis plants.

means to soffen woody tissue by natural decomposition, aided by moisture or soaking.

is the weeding of undesirable plants in a crop or population.  In cannabis cultivation, small and diseased plants are typically rogued.

is the part of a plant that typically grows below the surface of the soil.  Roots are considered to be organs that absorb water and nutrients and anchor a plant to the earth.

The configuration of a root system serves to support the plant structurally, compete with other plants, and for the uptake of nutrients from the soil.  Roots grow best with under specific conditions.  For example, a root system that developed in dry soil, may not be as efficient in wet soil conditions (as in flooding).  Root systems can adapt, however, to changes in the season.

Root architecture is regulated through environmental stimulus that triggers genes to alter growth.  The extrinsic factors that affect root architecture include gravity, light type and duration of expostue, water and oxygen, and the availability or shortage of nutrients; nitrogen, phosphorus, sulphur, or the presences of toxins such as aluminium and sodium chloride. The main hormones responsible for root development are;

  • Auxins – promotes root initiation, root emergence and primary root elongation.
  • Cytokinins – regulate root size and promote elongation.
  • Gibberellins – promotes with ethylene, crown primordia growth and elongation. Gibberellins also inhibits lateral root primordia initiation.
  • Ethylene – Ethylene promotes crown root formation.

are root growth promoting substances.  The main types of root hormones used in cannabis cultivation are:

  • Auxins – promotes root initiation, root emergence and primary root elongation.
  • Cytokinins – regulate root size and promote elongation.
  • Gibberellins – promotes with ethylene, crown primordia growth and elongation. Gibberellins also inhibits lateral root primordia initiation.
  • Ethylene – Ethylene promotes crown root formation.

is the world's most widely used herbicide.  Roundup was created by Monsanto in 1970 and its use has increased exponentially since then. From 1970 to 2016, 100x more roundup was sold worldwide.

Glyphosate is absorbed through foliage and through roots, and then transported to growing points, where it deactivates plant enzymes that synthesize  amino acids; tyrosine, tryptophan, and phenylalanine and interrupts the assimilation of glutathione.

Originally trumpeted as an agricultural wonder, concerns about the effects of roundup on human health and the environment are gathering steam.  Roundup is now implicated in cancer, endocrine, autoimmune and neurological disorders.  In India, thousands of Indian farmers are reported to have committed suicide by drinking roundup, after their treated GMO crops failed.  Previously a Monsanto lobbyist had claimed glyphosate was safe to drink, but declined when offered a glyphosate cocktail.  

Scientific American reported that roundup can kill human cells, particularly embryonic, placental and umbilical cord cells. The new findings intensify a debate about so-called “inerts” which are the solvents, preservatives, surfactants and other substances that manufacturers add to pesticides and herbicides.

Recently, weeds have developed resistance to roundup, combined with a myriad other issues, places roundup's future in doubt.

is the third most popular species of marijuana behind Sativa and Indica.  Cannabis Ruderalis is traditionally used in Russian and Mongolian folk medicine, especially in treating depression.

Ruderalis is known for its ability to thrive in harsh climates. It is low in THC and is used by breeders to cross its hardy CBD-rich genetics with Sativa and Indica strains. Unlike most strains of cannabis, Ruderalis "autoflowers", which means it flowers according to its age, as to opposed light cycles, where flowering is induced decreasing lighting hours.


in marijuana cultivation, refers to a nutrient that has crystallized due to overuse.  Visible salt crystals is a bad thing for growers.  Salts that should be in solution, solidify when the concentration of fertilizing nutrients are much too high for the conditions; i.e. the pH might be too acidic or akaline, too much nutrient per volume of water is used, or the temperature is too hot and water evaporates and salts crystalize. 

Excessive salt concentrations burn plant roots, which prevents proper function, and results in the yellowing of leaves and stunted growth.  Epsom salts are an example of a nutrient, while table salt (sodium chloride) is an example of a toxin (to plants).  


is a species of cannabis. Most of America's Sativa strains come from South America, the Caribbean, Africa, and Thailand. Sativas grow taller than the two other marijuana species; Indica and Ruderalis. At maturity, they stand six or more feet tall, with lighter and longer leaves, as compared to the shorter and broader Indica.  Sativas are better suited to outdoor growing than Indicas.  Effects are generally uplifting, energetic, cerebral, and spacey, making it most suitable for day use.

is a poor man's marijuana.  Schwag is low quality weed that can contain twigs, leaves and seeds with limited amounts of potent flower (bud).  Schwag is harsh in taste and low in THC content.   

is a branching shoot containing buds that can be grafted onto another marijuana plant.

means to scrape or roughen the surface of a hard seed.  Scuffed seeds germinate more quickly.

is a method of growing clones in a small space, where they are manipulated to flower almost immediately after rooting.   In SOG farming, yields are lower than traditional methods, but work well in small spaces.

is a containerizer for marijuana. A seal-a-meal is an airtight sealer for plastic bags, which preserves freshness, while blocking the smell of pungent marijuana.  

is the offspring of a plant which is producted when a female flower is polinated.  Seeds are composed of a protective shell, an embryo and a supply of food.   A seed germinates when it senses mositure, the right temperature and light conditions.  Normally seeds germinate in moist, dark, room temperature conditions.

is a plant's container (calyx) that keeps the seed dry.

refers to self fertilization in a plant (hermaphrodite) that contains both sperm and egg - pollen sacs and pistils with ovary.  

is a California bill that defines the scope and application of medical marijuana use in the State.

SB 420 was passed by the California State Legislature in 2003, pursuant to the powers reserved to the State of California, and its people under the Tenth Amendment to the United States Constitution.  It clarified the scope and application of California Proposition 215, Compassionate Use Act of 1996, which established the California medical marijuana program.

is the end of the plant's life cycle, where growth declines, leaves wither and the plant dies.


refers to top grade of street cannabis which has no seeds, as opposed to low quality cannabis with seeds, like schwag.

refers to reproduction or the pollination of plants,to produce seeds, which germinate and propagate the strain's population.

or Bunk is slang for the lower growth, which is the least potent portion of a cannabis plant.

refers to BHO which is butane hash oil, an oily, waxy or toffee like concentrate extract of cannabis.  BHO is very high in THC, but some of the terpenes are lost in the manufacture process.

results in the loss of electricity to a device such as lights in an elect circuit.  An electrical short occurs wires cross and results in a massive surge in power through the wires, which causes overheating, and blows a breaker or fuse in the cricuit.  The most common cause of a short circuit is damage to insulation that covers wires, often caused by misuse.

means a potent type of marijuana that comes from an unpollinated flowering female cannabis plant.

refers to pungent cannabis strains with a distinct skunk smell.  The term Skunk can also be used to describe the "original" strain Skunk #1, that has been bred into perhaps 50% of the commercial marijuana gene pool, over the past 20 years. The original Skunk #1 strain is thought to have originated in California from Acapulco Gold, Columbian Gold and Afghani genetic lines. Skunk was popularized in the Netherlands and became a hit worldwide from there.  These sativa-dominant hybrids are still capable of finishing outdoors in the northern climes.  Skunk varieties are known for their high yields of potent bud.  

is a threaded, metal holder for a screw-in lightbulb.

is a growing medium composed of various quantities of moss, vermiculite, perlite, sand, pumice, mineral, nutrients, compost, and peat.

means to dissolve in a liquid.  For example, oil soluble molecules such as cannabinoids dissolve in oil.  Water soluble minerals can dissolve in water.  Solubility of a molecule depends on its polarity, a polar molecule is soluble in apolar solution. i.e. salt (NaCl) is dissolves easily in water because they are both polar molecules. 

is something that dissolves in a liquid.  For example, oil soluble molecules such as cannabinoids, readily dissolve in oil.  Water soluble minerals easily dissolve in water.  Solubility of a molecule depends on its polarity, a polar molecule is soluble in apolar solution. i.e. salt (NaCl) is dissolves easily in water because they are both polar molecules.

In cannabis foirmulation chemistry, it is well known that the main cannabinoids THC and CBD - in acid and non-acid form - are weakly soluble in water but are very solvent in oils, alcohols like ethanol and isopropyl, and hydrocarbons like butane, hexane.

is a liquid containing two or more equally distributed substances.  The ingredients of a solution are homogeneous where the most abundant ingredient is known as the solvent, and the secondary components are known as solutes.  For example, sea water is a solution, where water is the solvent, and sodium chloride is the solute, along with many other water soluble trace minerals.   

is used as a growing medium in cannabis cultivation, added either to soil or as a substrate in hydroponics.  Sponge rock is perlite, which is a glassy volcanic rock.  Sponge rock is very light and readily holds liquids, which accounts for its popularity as a growing medium.

is a microscopic seed-like offspring of fungi, algae, bacteria and also certain species of non-flowering plants.  Spores require moisture and darkness (usually) to grow.  In cannabis cultivation, good ventilation, humidity control and proper lighting will prevent spores from growing and mold from propagating. 

is the initial growth phase of a seed, stem, root, or leaf.  A marijuana seed sprouts when it is placed in moist, dark conditions at room temperature.

is used to measure the floor area of a space. A square foot is - a square - with sides equal to one foot.  A room that is ten feet long and eight feet wide, is 10 x 8 = 80 square feet.

refers to a liquid or water that does not move or flow.  Stagnant air and water is bad for healthy marijuana cultivation and encourages the growth of mold, fungus, bacteria and other organisms.    

As a remedy for stagnation, fans are used to move the air, and sand and gravel added to the soil to allow water to flow to the roots and drain (and not stagnate).

is the male organ located in the flower.  The stamen has an anther (spore pod), which produces and holds pollen or sperm, until ejaculation, at which point it is transported by the wind, an insect or some other means to a female cannabis flower organ (ovule) where reproduction (seed) takes place.

is male pollen-producing flower, having stamens, but no pistils (female sexual organs).

means a state license issued pursuant to this chapter.

is to decontaminate an area, soil or tools to avoid infection with microbes such as bacteria, mold, and any other undesirable life forms.

is the tip of the female flower's pistil, which picks up pollen, in the first step of sexual reproduction

is a small leaf-like appendage found at the base of the leaf-stalk in marijuana and other plants.

are a small holes on the underside of leaves that are responsible for the evaporation (transpiration) which is the main mechanism for the transport of water about the plant.  Stomata must be kept open to perform and keep a plant healthy.  Spraying the wrong liquids (oily, sticky, non-water soluble) and dust can block stomata, which curtails respiration and growth.

is a particular version of a plant species.  Strain can refer to either a pure or hybrid variety, like sativa or indica.  Each different strain is grown to optimize certain traits of the plant, with given name influenced by its parentage, features (color, taste, smell, origin or physical effect), or at the whim of the inventing cultivator.  There are hundreds of strains available in America now, with many more on the way.  Strains are often categorized in two ways; by genetics and by THC and CBD content.  There are three main strain types; Sativa dominant, Hybrid Sativa and Indica and Indica Dominant.  Sativa strains tend to be energising, making it good for day use, while Indica strains tend to be sedating, making it suitable for night use.  

Strains are most often categorizing by psychoactivity.  Strains high in THC with little else are considered to be both medicinal and recreational.  Strains with balanced THC and CBD content are considered the most medicinal, while delivering a more balanced high.  Strains high in CBD are used medically as opposed to recreational and are particularly popular with people who can't handle or don't want to deal with THC.  

Different strains vary in composition of essential oils, which contain a multitude of terpenes, each with its own distinct fragrance, of lime, pine, earth, petroleum and so on,  In what is known as the entourage effect, the various cannabinoids with the ensemble of terpenes work together in synergy to produce a superior medical and recreational experience as compared to THC alone.

is anything the puts force, pressure, resistance, or challenges a plant.  Plants (and animals) require a limited amount of natural stress to grow strong.  Too much stress, especially from unnatural sources hampers plant development.  For example, moderate wind simulates plants to grow a thicker stem, which supports larger branches, which allows for the production of more fruit and flowers (bud). Too much stress can cause ill effects; such as storm winds that blow the plants out of the ground or break limbs.  The art of marijuana cultivation involves introducing the right type of stress to the plant in the right amount, that ultimately cause the plant to produce production ample quantities of the medicinal ingredients THC, CBD, and terpenes.

is the medium where an organism grows.  Marijuana cultivation substrates are soil, soilless mixes and inert mediums with added nutrients (hydroponics).  

is a simple molecule produced in the leaves of plants in a process called photosynthesis; using water from the roots, energy from the sun, and carbon dioxide absorbed from the air. Sugar is used by the plant as energy or as a structural material, where several sugars are biosynthesized together to produce cellulose (fiber).

is a drain, or a reservoir for drainage, or a container for a nutrient solution, used in cannabis cultivation.

is a common name for a fertilizer that is high in phosphorus and potassium, which promotes abundant flower formation and growth.

refers to CO2 extraction of the active ingredients of marijuana; i.e. THC and CBD.  The CO2 extraction process extracts compounds with little damage and low toxicity. Supercritical liquid CO2 is introduced into a high pressure vessel with marijuana, and pumped through a filter, which separates out plant fiber. The supercritical CO2 is evaporated, and the dissolved components including the cannabinoids and essential oils, remain.

means to combine two or more substances to form a more complex substance, i.e. A + B → AB.  Biosynthesis refers to synthesis by a plant as opposed to a chemical synthesis which is completed by humans.


is the first and primary root that grows from the seed. As the plant grows, all subsequent roots grow from the taproot.

is the scientific classification of plants and animals, according to a defined similarity in their genetic (DNA) code.  

is a plumbers best friend.  It is a wonder quick fix for many plumbing issues and is great for sealing water joints.

is a bud that sits on the tip-top of the plant's main stem.  Cutting the terminal bud is a way to make a plant wider and bushier.  Pruning the terminal bud results in the plant growing several branch shoots lower down the stem.

are small aromatic molecules produced by the trichomes of a cannabis plant.  These compounds are highly aromatic and account for much of marijuana's variety of smells; of fruit earth, skunk, mint, pine, diesel, blueberry, etc.  Terpenes have many medicinal properties that work in combination with THC, CBD and other ingredients. Some terpenes can either amplify, moderate or balance the effects of psychoactive THC.     

for testing of medical cannabis and medical cannabis products. Testing licensees shall have their facilities licensed according to regulations set forth by the division. A testing licensee shall not hold a license in another license category of this chapter and shall not own or have ownership interest in a facility licensed pursuant to this chapter.

means a facility, entity, or site in the state that offers or performs tests of medical cannabis or medical cannabis products and that is both of the following:

(1) Accredited by an accrediting body that is independent from all other persons involved in the medical cannabis industry in the state.
(2) Registered with the State Department of Public Health.

is the most common and famous psychoactive ingredient of most recreational and medical marijuana strains.  THC effects vary greatly depending on the individual, the concentration consumed and other ingredients, such as cannabidiol, other cannabinoids and terpenes.  THC works primarily by interacting with the CB1 receptors which are found in abundance in the central nervous system cells and are intimately involved in brain and nervous function.   THC works by mimicking the body's own receptor chemicals - called endocannabinoids - that may be in short supply; to induce sleep, dial down pain, dial in creativity, make a person hungry, or cause a panic attack.  THC is especially non-toxic, with no documented deaths from overdose.


THC comes in several varieties

  • d9THC is psychoactive and is the most common form referred to as simply THC
  • d8THC is not psychoactive and is found mostly Hemp, not rec and medical marijuana
  • THCV is psychoactive and energising, and uplifting
  • THCA is raw THC which converts to the psychoactive form when ignited or baked

In California, medical marijuana with chief ingredient being THC, is legally recommended by medical doctors for Alzheimer’s, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Anorexia, Arthritis, Cachexia,  Cancer, Crohn’s disease, Epilepsy, Glaucoma, Hepatitis,  HIV/AIDS, Lyme disease, Migraine, Multiple Sclerosis, Muscle Spasms, Pain, Severe nausea, Seizures, Spasticity, Wasting Syndrome.

stands for tetrahydrocannabivarin: a psychoactive cannabinoid with properties that oppose the "normal" form of THC; THCV is uplifting rather than sedating, it is energising as opposed to locking the user to a couch.  THCV is an appetite suppressant, may help with diabetes, reduces panic attacks, may reduce tremors, improve motor control, and positively affect brain lesions associated with Alzheimer’s disease.  THCV also appears to stimulates bone growth in animal studies.

THCV is particularly abundant in marijuana in South African strains, Durban Poison is one example.

are sulfur-hydrogen containing molecules.  Some strains of marijuana that smell strongly of skunk are rich in pungent terpenes and terpenoids that contain thiols.

also know as "green dragon", is an ethanol alcohol extract of cannabis that concentrates the active ingredients, the cannabinoids, THC, CBD among other ingredients. Tinctures can be swallowed or used sublingually (under the tongue).  A few drops of tincture may contain 10 or more mg of THC of CBD.  A few drops of a CBD tincture taken sublingually can stop seizures in epileptics in certain individuals in a minute or so.

means a product intended for external use. A topical cannabis product is not considered a drug as defined by Section 109925 of the Health and Safety Code.

are a way to apply medical marijuana transdermally without getting high.  In cannabis topicals, extracted plant oils are added with other cosmetic ingredients to create lotions, moisturizers, creams and balms.  Transdermal cannabis is used for pain relief, skin irritation, inflammation, nausea, muscle pains among other applications.  

is a process where water moves through a plant and finally evaporates from leaves, stems and flowers. Of course water is necessary for plants, but they actually only need only small amounts.  Water function is largely to transport minerals and nutrients via absorption by the roots and transported throughout the plant.  After nutrients in the water delivered for growth and metabolism function, about 99% of total water absorbed exits the plant through the leaf pores called stomata, on the undersides of foliage.

means to uproot and move a plant to another location.  There are several methods of transplanting, all of which leave the root system intact from uprooting to successful replanting.

means the transfer of medical cannabis or medical cannabis products from the permitted business location of one licensee to the permitted business location of another licensee, for the purposes of conducting commercial cannabis activity authorized pursuant to this chapter.

means a person issued a state license by the bureau to transport medical cannabis or medical cannabis products in an amount above a threshold determined by the bureau between facilities that have been issued a state license pursuant to this chapter.

is a lattice of wood that is used as a frame, to train or support plants.

is a method of restricting plant growth or altering its shape and size by tying a plant to a wire or screen.

are resin-cannabinoid-terpene producing glands found throughout the cannabis plant and are especially concentrated in the flowers (bud).  Trichomes are sticky, appear crystal-like and contain about 30% cannabinoids by weight; the majority of which is usually THC and CBD.  Harvested Trichomes is called Kief, which is pressed into resin cakes called hash.  

Solvents are used to extract the resin from trichomes to make hash oil, which usually contains 50-60% cannabinoids by weight.  Strains that produce ample bud with an abundance of trichomes have the highest demand due to their high recreational and medicinal potency.  Cultivation practices revolve around providing growing conditions that produce the highest amount of trichomes / THC and CBD.  

refers to the leftover leaves from the trimming and harvesting of marijuana buds.  Though trim has significantly less cannabinoids than the flowers, its oil and resin can be effectively extracted and used to make hash, edibles and tinctures.

is a somewhat rare form of cannabis, that has three chromosomes per set, rather than two, which is thought to contribute to plant vigor in some cases.  Triploid plants are naturally occuring and produce usable recreational and medical herb.

is a metal used in high-end light filaments.  Tungsten is a very heavy, hard metal, with a high melting point, making it an ideal filament for various kinds of lamps, such as tungsten halogen lamps.


is light of high energy with a short wavelength.  Ultraviolet light exists just beyond the blue-violet end of the spectrum.  The sun produces UV, but regular commercial agricultural lighting does not.  UV kills microbes like bacteria, fungus and mold and tends to keep away many insect pests as well.  UV acts to catalyze biochemical reactions in plants and animals and is especially useful to boost flower growth and yield.

stands for United States Environmental Protection Agency. Many of the EPA allowable pesticides and herbicides contradict research studies that imply that they are, in fact, harmful to humans and the environment.  Good cannabis cultivation practices should avoid synthetic chemicals, whether or not they are EPA approved.  Many agriculturalists have opined that the EPA could be overhauled or disbanded entirely, due to its propensity to over regulate without tangible results.  


is used in cannabis solvent extraction procedures to remove solvent from the final product.  Small molecules evaporate more quickly in the absence of air pressure.  Special ovens are equipped with a vacuum system that allow for moderate heating under vacuum, which speeds up the process greatly, while more efficiently removing solvents that could be toxic.  In addition, lower heating temperatures are required with vacuum systems, so that the lighter fractions of cannabis oil, especially terpenes are retained.  

is a handheld device used to vaporize and consume marijuana for either recreational or medical purposes.  In a vaporizer, cannabis can be mixed with herbs, tobacco and other plant material.  Vaporizers produce a cleaner dose with less waste as compared to smoking from a pipe, bong or joint.  

is a small, portable, discrete vaporizer that is pre-filled with  cannabis concentrate cartridges.  Pen smoke does not smell, making it popular for medicating on the go.

is a subset population of a species of plants.  Variety, strain, race or phenotype are equivalent terms.  Members of a variety share common traits, such as the amount of THC, CBD, terpenes, leaf type, plant height, resistance to disease, etc.

refers to a type of plant with circulatory system composed of tubes and special cells that carries liquids and nutrients throughout the organism. Vascular bundles in cannabis are composed of phloem which transports sugar and xylem that transports water and nutrients. 

is used to describe an insect or organism that transmits something;  i.e. a mosquito is a vector that transports malaria, a bee is a vector that transports pollen.

is the stage of a cannabis plant's life after sprouting and before flowering.  In the vegetative growth stage, the majority of its foliage and root system grows to maturity, for the purpose of supplying support and nutrition for an ample crop of plump flowers, rich in trichomes, full of terpenes and cannabinoids.

For most strains, the vegetative stage lasts for 4-6 weeks, but it can be as short as two weeks, or as long as 8 months, depending on lighting, strain, and other conditions.  The vegetation stage ends when the plant begins to flower.  The timing of flowering can be automatic as seen in strains with Ruderallis genetics.  In most strains of Indica and Sativa, the vegetative stage ends when the lighting period is shortened from 16 hours to 12 or less, which means the plants are held in darkness for 12 hours or more.  In vegetation, lights that generate higher intensities of blue are preferable, while reds are more condictive to ample flowering.

is an opening in a cultivation facility that allows fresh air to circulate.

assists in the circulation of fresh air, which is fundamental to a healthy indoor garden.  An exhaust fan is commonly used to ventilate grow areas.

is a fine volcanic rock gravel made from mica, which is used as an additive to soil or a medium (hydroponics), Vermiculite is popularly used for growing root cuttings.

is a vitamin additive used in transplanting to ease root shock and to prevent wilting.


refers to the supposedly strict ban and vigorous enforcement of narcotics in America over the past 40-50 years. The War on Drugs focuses on the sale, distribution and use of marijuana, cocaine, crack, heroin among other dangerous and addictive drugs.   The War on Drugs began with the Nixon administration, however, later administrations under Clinton, Bush and Obama were responsible for spending most grandly on this "cause", and incarcerated many millions of Americans, at an overall cost of more than $50 billion in direct costs per annum, and perhaps an equal amount in collateral damage.  

The overwhelming majority of citizens (about 65%) oppose the Federal Government's War on Drugs policy when it comes to marijuana.  In addition, most states have legalized medical marijuana.   Public opinion against he War on Drugs is influenced by CIA employees admitting deep and systematic involvement in the drug trade, aid and abetting criminals, in many cases.  The world's largest banks have been implicated and convicted in money laundering schemes which are seen as the tip of the iceberg.   Since cananbis has been used for thousands of years, and medical doctors and patients alike agree that the herb is medicinal and extremely safe to use, the War on Drugs is seen rather, as a War on the People.

In 2017, CBD, a non-psychoactive, low toxicity component of medical cannabis was declared a schedule 1 drug which is highly addictive and has no medical use, which contradict's the legal and medical definition of a dangerous narcotic.

is an opaque waxy form of cannabis oil, which contains THC and other cannabinoids, paraffins (waxy hydrocarbons) and oil.  Wax is consumed by dabbing, which is an inhalation technique of heating and vaporizing cannabis concentrates.

, marihuana, grass, are equivalent terms for cannabis plants that contain appreciable quantities of THC, the main psychoactive cannabinoid, that is both a medicine and intoxicant.  Marijuana and its cousin Hemp was used as a fabric, food, fuel, intoxicant and medicinally for thousands of years.  Recently, marijuana has once again become a widely used medicine, and is recognized as a treatment for a host of disorders; cardiovascular disease, inflammation, neurological conditions, anxiety, PTSD, gastrointestinal issues, cancer, anorexia, among many others.


The primary active ingredients in cannabis are several kinds of cannabinoids, of which psychoactive THC is the most well known, especially among recreational users.  Non-psychoactive CBD is the most popular medicinal cannabinoid component in marijuana.  Other cannabinoids and fragrant essential oils (terpenes) also contribute to Marijuana's medicinal properties.

In the United States, marijuana was a major prescribed medicine until the 1930's, when a group of industrial competitors of Hemp products successfully manipulated the political process, with net result marijuana and hemp being declared illegal in any shape or form.  This act was the beginning of the War on Drugs.  Today, Marijuana is by far the biggest agricultural commodity with an estimated $50 billion in sales per annum in the US.  As medical marijuana is legalized across the country, it has become the most widely used medication.  

Weed is slang for Cannabis/Marijuana. In New York City.  There were more than 19,000 kg (41,000 lb) of marijuana growing like weeds throughout the boroughs until 1951, when the "White Wing Squad", headed by the Sanitation Department General Inspector John E. Gleason, was charged with destroying the many pot farms that had sprouted up across the city.   The Brooklyn Public Library reports: this group was held to a high moral standard and was prohibited from "entering saloons, using foul language, and neglecting horses".  The Squad found the most weed in Queens, but even in Brooklyn they dug up "millions of dollars" worth of the plants, many as "tall as Christmas trees".  Gleason oversaw the incineration of the plants in Woodside, Queens.

is a compound that increases absorption of nutrients.  A wetting agent reduces the surface tension of water, causing the droplet size to be reduced, and thereby increases absorption. Wetting agents used normally used when a planting nutrient mix is first watered. The wetted planting medium will accept water more readily. Organic wetting agents are preferred over those with chemical additives, which are almost universally used by big-corp manufacturers.

is three or more leaves or petals growing at the same location to form a circle.

is three or more leaves or branches located at each node along the branches and stems: Whorled phyllotaxy is an expressed trait, which differs from triploidy, which is a genetic abnormality.

is a fibrous cord used to deliver nutrients in a hydroponic system.  A wick has small holes in its fibers that act like capillaries (small tubes) that slowly draw up a liquid, usually water with nutrients into a growing medium, for absorption by the roots.

means to become limp from lack of water and also refers to a plant disease.  Verticillium wilt is caused by fungus.  Wilting is promoted by soils that are over fertilized or are poorly drained.


are fine tubes in plant roots and foliage that transport water with minerals and nutrients from the soil up the stem to the leaves and flowers.


refers to top-quality hash that comes exclusively from the trichomes and resin that passes readily through a sieve.