MASTER OF CANNABIS - WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW
Test your self, are you a cannabis pro?
If you are a cannabis professional: a dispensary owner, a grower, consultant or doctor, you won't be fully respected by your alpha-peers if you goof-up on these 100 cannabis fundamentals.
This article is meant to cater to the avalanche of professionals: doctors, lawyers, scientists and businessmen that are entering the fray of this mega-billion dollar business. As the group moves forward, many people are getting urban myth thoroughly confused with fact.
No worries, you don't need to have a Ph.D. in biochemistry to learn these fundamentals of cannabis science.
CANNABIS SCIENCE GOES DEEP
It may come as quite a surprise to some; the science of cannabis is quite mature for there are more than twenty thousand peer reviewed academic papers published by prestigious institutions on the many aspects of marijuana and its ingredients.
Certainly, the vast majority of general practitioners out there today have no training in cannabinoids and medical marijuana, whatsoever, as cannabis was deleted from the medical books; US pharmacopeia in 1936. Foreign to our perception, back in the day doctor's routinely prescribed cannabis and patients purchased it at their local pharmacies. Three generations later, the medical community has near complete amnesia about their own pharmacological history. However, this brainwashing process, this travesty of science is currently being reversed.
GPs SEE THE LIGHT
So, the average GP is beginning to understand or suspect that marijuana has medical value, however, ignorance is still quite rampant. The vast majority of people make this fundamental mistake, they talk about marijuana as if its one thing, specifically that it's a plant-drug that gets people high.
However, ignorance is being swept away with the availability of information via the worldwide web. People are learning that the various variations of the cannabis plant contains hundreds of compounds, many with established medicinal properties; antiseptic, antibiotic, anti microbial, anti-inflammatory, antipsychotic, analgesic, and on and on. Through selective breeding, varieties of cannabis by self anointed alchemists from across the planet have produced an amazing variety of medicinals and industrial products.
SELF-LEARNING AND BULLSHIT
One common self-learning technique is to watch Youtube videos. While this is a pleasurable and effective way to learn, a lot material is full of urban myth and short on solid fact.
ANALOGY - FAKE MARTIAL ARTIST vs MMA FIGHTER
Twenty years ago, martial arts were populated with a great number of fake or delusional black belts paired with delusional idol worshiping students. These "expert" techniques might have worked on people that didn't know how to fight BUT ... when mixed martial art competitions became a thing, soon it was discovered what styles actually worked and what did not.
In time, real mixed martial artists would challenge fake experts, who either declined combat or were very brutally exposed - concussed and bleeding, perhaps as they should be. Similarly, you don't want to be that guy, the delusional expert, who meets his match and gets publicly humiliated.
If you're a real expert if you can identify the molecular structure differences between THC and THC acid, the difference between THC and CBD. You need to know things like, what is the evaporation temperature of the cannabinoids, what are the main terpenes in marijuana, what are their names, basic medicinal properties. How really does the endocannabinoid system work. What is an agonist vs and antagonist? Which cannabinoids affect which receptor to do what?
What is the difference between Hemp and Cannabis?
Actually, they are of the same species, like a cat or a dog, cannabis comes in all shapes and sizes. In industry, hemp is legally defined as a type of cannabis that contains little THC (usually less than 0.3%). Hemp, therefore has no appreciable psychoactive substances and is farmed for its fiber, vegetable oil and food source. Marijuana or cannabis legally refers to plants with more than 0.3% THC and now CBD is sometimes included in the definition.
What are the two main types of cannabis (non-hemp)?
Indica and Sativa
Indica plants and leaves are short and broad.
Sativa plants and leaves are tall and thin.
What is the difference between Indica and Sativa?
This is where urban myth is exposed. On the street, the word is that Indica's are sedating, while Sativas are energising. However, the plant's appearance and its effects is not necessarily consistent as seen in the clinic. A strain's actual genetics as seen from proper laboratory testing with a cannabinoid and terpene profile is the only reliable way to predict its medicinal properties. However, the flower's aroma and casual observation of a strain's effects and physical appearance is still of value (if limited) in breeding.
What is Ruderalis?
Ruderalis is a hearty type of cannabis plant originating in the southern climes of Russia and Steppes of Asia. As a result, this plant can be grown outdoors. As with all types of cannabis, the assortment of cannabinoids can vary widely, with higher values of THC (10%+) being present in some strains, as well as elevated CBD (5%). In the past, Ruderalis was overlooked due to its smaller plant size and lower THC content, however, its ability to grow outdoors - combined with crossbreeding with strains high in THC and CBD - has attracted interest by elite growers and consumers alike.
How much THC and CBD is in the leaves and foliage?
About 1 to 2% cannabinoids, leaf near the flowers may be around 4%,
Another measure is the leaves are 10% that of the flower, and stalk is 1% that of the flower.
The seeds are not a viable source of THC, however small amounts of CBD in hemp seeds might be useful for nutritional as opposed to therapeutic support.
What is Hemp used for?
Hemp foliage is a superior source of fiber, both in strength and durability, which makes it a valuable commodity for textiles and in the paper industry.
Hemp seeds are a viable source of essential fatty acids, oil, protein and amino acids.
Hemp flowers may be a source of CBD and other non-psychoactive cannabinoids.
How much THC is in the average hemp plant?
Natural hemp flower contains 0.2 to 0.5 % THC, but some varieties can exceed 1%.
How much CBD is in Hemp?
In North American Hemp, CBD varies from 0.8% to 2% in the flowerm, but some so called hemp strains with 5-10% higher can be and is called marijuana in certain circles.
What are the advantages of Hemp as an agricultural product?
About 4 tons of hemp seeds can be harvested per acre. Hemp Seeds are about one third fatty acids (Omega-3) and one third protein one third carbs & fiber.
Name five of the top marijuana strains in the USA?
Blue Dream, Sour Diesel, Girl Scout Cookies, Green Crack, OG Kush, Bruce Banner
Tangerine Power, Banana Kush, Purple Kush, Blueberry, Durban Poison, Jack Herer, Skunk #1
Trainwreck, LA Confidential, Harlequin, Tangerine Dream, Cannatonic, Granddaddy Purple
** a composite of several top 10 lists from the biggest sites found around the Web
How much CBD is in high-CBD strains?
Up to 25% CBD. There are varieties with 12% each of THC and CBD.
What is America's top selling strain?
How much CBD is there in ``normal`` marijuana?
Not much. CBD has been bred out of most strains of marijuana and most popular varieties contain less than 0.5%. On the other hand, CBD is now recognized as desirable by both medical and recreational users, and high CBD strains are crossed with popular THC strains to produce hybrids with 1:1 THC:CBD.
What is the difference between flower and auto-flower varieties of cannabis?
Autoflower cannabis plants produce cannabinoid rich flowers after a specific period of time, commonly 8 to 10 weeks after planting, depending on the genetics (strain). Changes in duration of daylight cause non-autoflower cannabis plants to produce buds. During the seedling and vegetative stage (no flowers or seed), plants receive 18 hours of light. When light is cut back to 12 hours per day, the plant detects the change and enzymes kick in, flowers start to bloom and foliage production grinds to a halt.
What is a hermaphrodite?
Cannabis plants can be both male and female at the same time, able to produce pollen and be fertilized by it. Hermaphrodite plants may be born with dual sex,or a female may convert with the introduction of stress. Hermis can also appear at random, and crops may be fertilized unwillingly.
Why are males undesirable? Why are females desirable?
Males have much lower cannabinoid concentrations and compared to females. After sexing (pollination) cannabinoid production stops, with unfertilized flowers contain more cannabinoids than pollinated ones. Growers therefore must take great care to inspect their crops and remove males. Feminized seeds - which product almost all females is a very effective way to avoid unwanted males.
What are the two most popular forms of lighting?
The industry standard for indoor marijuana growing is high intensity discharge (HID) lights. LED lights are used increasingly to supplement or replace HID. LED is trending to become the dominant type of lighting, as prices come down..
The top marijuana pests, in order of importance are mold, spider mites, gnats, whiteflies, algae, mildew, dry rot.
PESTICIDES & HERBICIDES
While there are many cheap solutions to marijuana pest problems, growers big and small are often caught using illegal pesticides. Education, and random testing with hefty fines are a solutions pursued by industry and regulatory authorities.
Cannabinoids are a class of molecule, and are the main active ingredient of cannabis and includes THC, CBD. There are hundreds of different kinds of cannabinoids in cannabis, but only the ones found in appreciable quantities are normally quantified in testing: d9THCa, d9THC, Cannabidiol - CBD, CBDa, THC-V, Cannabinol, CBD, CBN
What is the difference between THCa and THC?
THCa is the naturally occurring molecule, an acid form of THC, which is non-psychoactive. Upon heating, in a process called decarboxylation, the acid group vaporizes and the resulting molecule is what most people refer to as THC. THC is psychoactive and has many medicinal properties. The raw acid, THCa is also therapeutic, but its subtle properties are little studied.
What are CBDs?
This is a scientifically incorrect term for CBD. While there are technically different kinds of CBD, in the vast majority of cases, CBD refers to one molecule, Cannabidiol, which is the second most abundant cannabinoid. CBDa is the acid form which converts to CBD (loses its carboxyl). There is also the little studied, but highly promising CBDV, which is found in some high-CBD strains. The CBDV molecule has three less carbons on its tail than CBD. In preclinical trials, CBDV shows great potential in treating neurological disorders, epilepsy.
What is the difference between the acids and decarboxylated versions.
Most cannabinoids in the plant are in the acid form. When heated above 157 degrees C, the non-psychoactive THC acid is converted to THC psychoactive, and this is the reason why people smoke or bake cannabis.
Are there different kinds of THC?
Yes, there are several types of THC, chemically speaking, they are called isomers or variants. d9THC (called THC colloquially) is the famous and main psychoactive component of cannabis..
Another form, d8THC which is abundant in Hemp but not marijuana, is only very weakly psychoactive. Another form found in South African varieties, THCV, which contains 3 less carbons (on the tail), affects receptors in opposition to THC in many ways; i.e. THCV suppresses appetite and energises, while THC enhances appetite and relaxes.
What strains are high in THC-V?
Durban poison is the most famous strain with one to two percent THCV. There are a number of niche strains with 5% or more THCV as well, with perhaps the most famous ones being Doug's Varin and Pineapple Purps.
What are the vaporization temperatures of the cannabinoids?
THC and CBD will vaporize together at 180 deg.
d9THC - 157 °C
CBD - 170 °C
d8-THC - 175 °C
CBN - 185 °C
CBC - 220 °C
THCV - 220 °C
Dry weed combusts around 200 °C
Moist cannabis combusts at 220-230 °C
What is the vaporization temperature of terpenes?
Almost all terpenes vaporize before the cannabinoids at temperatures below 100 deg C.
The most volatile terpenes found in the cannabis plant will start to evaporate at room temperature 22 deg C, or 70° F (its the smell of cannabis). Heavier terpenes evaporate rapidly around 38 deg C or 100° F, with the remainder coming off`well before THC boils off at 157 deg C..
What gives marijuana its smell?
Its volatile components: the terpenes and short chain fatty acids.
What are the top 12 most common terpenes in marijuana and their smell?
Alpha-Pinene, Beta-Pinene, Myrcene, Limonene, Caryophyllene, Linalool, Bisabitol, Borneol, Eucalyptol, Terpineol, Camphene Delta 3 Carene
What is the difference between terpenes and terpenoids?
Terpenoids are denatured terpenes from oxidation in drying and curing of the flowers.
What terpenes are found in black pepper corns - that dial down paranoia effects evolving from THC?
More or less equal quantities of germacrene, limonene, pinene, alpha-phellandrene and beta-caryophyllene;
What is the % weight of terpenes (essential oils) in cannabis flower.
The flower is 7 to 20% terpenes in weight depending on the strain..
What is the entourage effect?
It was discovered that the different ingredients in cannabis are more effective when taken together than in isolation. For example, 9 out of 10 patients prefer whole plant cannabis over synthetic THC alone. THC and CBD were found to complement one another to deliver a superior medical and recreational experience to most users. In addition, other cannabinoids and terpenes (essential oils) interact with the endocannabinoids system is positive ways.
Who is Dr. Mechoulam?
Dr. Mechoulam is the man who discovered THC among other cannabinoids. Dr, Mechoulam et.al. obtained US Federal research funding for medical marijuana research and these pioneering efforts formed the basis of today's Israel's medical marijuana program. Mechoulam also worked with isolates (THC alone) and synthetics and came to the conclusion; in general practice, whole plant extracts from balanced strains (with CBD, CBD, terpenes and not weaponized mono THC strains) worked best.
HISTORY - KEY MILESTONES
How long has man been using cannabis?
Archaeological evidence establishes cannabis as both the oldest agricultural and medicinal cultivar on record. Cannabis was used by man as far as the historic record goes back; more than 10,000 years, where cannabis remains in Taiwan were dated to 12,000 years before present. Cannabis was a main source of fiber for clothing in the times of Christ. Bible passages also refer to the medicinal use of the herb. Cannabis formulations were prescribed to Queen Victoria by her physicians for cramps, PMS, headaches.
Cannabis use Founding Fathers
Until the 1930's, cannabis and hemp were mainstream. Pre WWII Physicians prescribed cannabis based medicines, Cannabis was in the medical books, and hemp was America's favorite source of fiber.
How long has cannabis been illegal in America?
The founding fathers grew hemp and farmers of the new American Republic were required to grow hemp by law, as it was an essential material for rope, sails, clothing, oils and lubricants. Hemp's usefulness was strangely the same reason it was declared illegal some 150 years later.
In the 1930's, the Federal Government declared cannabis to be an illegal substance. A Mr. William Hurst orchestrated a syndicate of competing businesses, that of cotton, petroleum, pharmaceuticals, pulp and paper. This syndicate infiltrated the Federal Government to control the DEA and other Federal bureaus, creating policies and laws that wiped out all competition. Washington is somewhat behoven to the shadow government-megacorp syndicate to this day but Federal laws are not imposed, with notable exceptions and for the most part in marijuana legal states
Under the then new laws of the 1930's, non-psychoactive industrial hemp was also ruled illegal, for irrational reasons as well, for it contained no functional amounts of THC, with the exception of a period in World War 2, when farmers were encouraged to produce industrial hemp again for its fiber and oil.
Where did the name Marijuana come from?
The Feds coined the term marijuana, under which they created the notion that this wacky weed was corrupting White America. The wacky marijuana was advertised as an evil herb used primarily by lazy Mexicans and Blacks prone to violence, insanity, and rape. Today, this all seems to be very strange, but remember, we have Jeff Sessions declaring with a straight face that - good people don't smoke pot - there is no scientific research done on it. The new boss is the same as the old boss, right?
How did Cannabis became illegal in other countries?
The corporate foes of Cannabis, with their crony counterparts in the various governments, effectively made cannabis illegal in much of the world via agents like the US DEA, the United Nations and World Health Organization.
MAIN PRODUCT TYPES
High THC strains (flowers) with little CBD or other cannabinoids
Strains with equal amounts of THC and CBD
High CBD strains with low THC values
Concentrates made from the above
Tinctures, oils, creams, cakes (hash) and other derivatives
Raw herb contains 10 to 30% cannabinoids
Concentrates generally contain 50 to 90% cannabinoids
THE ENDOCANNABINOID SYSTEM & RECEPTORS
What is the endocannabinoid system and what does it do?
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a main cellular control system in mammals, including humans. The ECS is composed of molecules - neurotransmitters called endocannabinoids (the body's own) and cannabinoid receptors that reside on the surface of many types of cells, especially abundant in the immune and central nervous system.
How do CBD, THC and cannabinoids work with the endocannabinoid system?
Cannabis works by tapping into a body system - called the endocannabinoid system - that controls pain, immune, cardiovascular, cerebral, reproductive functions and more. Cannabinoids also work in other ways. For example, CBD is a strong anti-oxidant that interrupts enzymatic processes that are implicated in various diseases.
What body functions are affected by cannabinoids?
Central nervous system, immune system fertility, pregnancy, pre- and postnatal development, appetite, pain-sensation, mood, memory, programmed cell death, sleep, general well being, more.
How does cannabis components THC and CBD kill cancer cells in animal studies.
Cannabinoids promotes apoptosis or programmed cell death in cancer tissue. There is a wealth of anecdotal studies and patient testimonials that imply that Cannabis Oil in 1000mg quantities or more - effectively kills cancer cells in humans.
What is Rick Simpson Oil?
The original RS Oil is concentrated oil of cannabis flower, containing 50% or more THC, with little CBD. RS Oil is widely used to treat Cancer.
What is a cannabinoid receptor?
There are two types of cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2 that play a critical role in modulating physical and mental functions. When the body`s own endocannabinoids are in short supply or are imbalanced, diseases and their symptoms results. Plant cannabinoids work by supplementing and correcting a dysfunctional, deficient or impaired endocannabinoid system 0 to effectively attenuate pain, inflammation, appetite, anxiety and so on.
The CB1 receptor is predominant in the brain, central nervous system, lungs, liver and kidneys. THC attenuates this receptor most.
The CB2 receptor predominant in the immune system, hematopoietic (blood) cells and nerve cells. CBD attenuates this receptor most.
Why is d9THC psychoactive while CBD is not?
CBD does not modulate the CB1 receptors that invoke a psychoactive response, or high.
How does THC marijuana assist lung function?
THC affects the CB1 receptors in the cardiac and respiratory system to reduce inflammation and dilates bronchial tubes. This is why vaping cannabis helps athletes get a better cardio workout.
Does smoking marijuana harm the lungs?
No. Clinical studies show that marijuana smokers have improved lung capacity, with the exception of very heavy long time use.
Why does THC cause anxiety and paranoia?
THC can both cause or cure the feeling of fear, depending on individual biochemistry and dose.
THC in lower doses can dial down the receptor that is involved in the fear and flight response system, which reduces anxiety, but in higher amounts. taken by vulnerable individuals, receptors work in opposition - to the point of paranoia or a panic attack.
What is an agonist and antagonist?
An antagonist is something that attenuates down or blocks the progress. For example, CBD is an antagonist of the CB1 receptor, and curbes hyper-response from THC..
An agonist binds to and activates a receptor. THC is an agonist for the CB1 receptor and CBD is an agonist for the CB2 receptor.
How does THC and CBD work together with cellular receptors?
Taking CBD with THC together tends to achieve a more balanced response by receptors, which in turn delivers a more favorable medical and recreational experience.
Can cells grow more cannabinoid receptors?
Yes, introducing cannabinoids causes the formation of more receptors on cellular membranes.
What remains to be discovered about the endocannabinoid system?
The current description of cannabinoids with their action with receptors and bodily systems is evolving and many interrelationships and important details of the endocannabinoid system are probably waiting to be discovered. For example, another type of cannabinoid receptor is implied to exist and the search is on.
What are the main routes of administration?
Inhalation via vape, inhalation via joint, oral oil, oral edibles.
What are the other routes of administration?
Sublingual (under the tongue) tincture, transdermal creams.
What is a mg?
There are 1000 mg in one gram, or about 5000 mg in a teaspoon.
How long does an inhalation dose (joint, vape) last?
One hour or so.
What are the advantages of the inhalation route?
Relief is fast, in seconds. The correct dosage can be found quickly.
How long does an oral dose last?
Eight hours or more.
What are the advantages of oral dosing?
Relief is long lasting, all day or all night relief of pain, insomnia, inflammation etc.
What is the disadvantage of oral dosing?
It takes considerable effort to nail down the minimum effective dose.
Effects are long lasting, so some people cannot dose orally during the workday.
What are the effects of first time THC use?
Effects are generally poor to unpleasant.
What is a good starting dose range for THC?
2-10 mg in the evening.
What is a good starting dose for CBD?
10-20 mg anytime.
How long does it take for the body's own endocannabinoid system to adjust to a THC or CBD dose?
Two to three weeks.
What is meant by the term minimum effective dose?
The minimum effective dose is found by titrating (gradually adding) THC and or CBD a few mg each fortnight until the benefits are seen to be maximum. For example, if 40 mg is the minimum effective dose, a 50 mg provides no greater benefits or is perhaps even less effective.
What is a cannabis holiday?
When taking any drug or substance, the body develops a tolerance or resistance to it. By dosing 2 days of per 7, or cycling 5 weeks on and 2 weeks off, the overall benefits of cannabinoid therapy is greater, as compared to no "holiday".
Synthetic means man-made. Some synthetic cannabinoids and isolated forms, while less efficacious and potentially more dangerous have been classified as Schedule 3 drugs, in the same class as antibiotics and other prescribed pharmaceuticals. A safe synthetic form of THC called Marinol is now available under prescription, but most patients prefer whole cannabis, by a wide margin. On the street, illegal mixtures of synthetic cannabinoids - called Spice - are without question harmful and dangerous.
What is marinol?
Marinol is synthetic pharmaceutical grade THC. Orthodox medical doctors like to use medicines in standardized doses which Marinol affords. Medical marijuana practitioners and patients generally much prefer whole cannabis medicines.
"Dronabinol is marketed as Marinol, a registered trademark is available as a prescription drug (under Marinol) in the United States, Germany, South Africa and Australia. In the United States, Marinol is a Schedule III drug, available by prescription, considered to be non-narcotic and to have a low risk of physical or mental dependence."
Efforts to have cannabis rescheduled as analogous to Marinol have not succeeded thus far, which points out the hypocritical nature of the situation, cannabinoids are only legal in forms controlled by exclusively by Big-Pharma.
Anti-marijuana laws were created to protect big business intrests, and no other. Anti-cannabis laws have existed for the past eighty years or so only. Before that, cannabis was legal worldwide except in rare instances.
Why are marijuana laws so convoluted and confusing?
It is by design. Marijuana's big business competitors effectively lobbied and coerced governments round the word to muddy the waters, throw a spanner in the engine, use delay tactics as a way to stop marijuana and hemp from eating into their profits; implicated is the penal system, pharmaceutical drug companies, health industry, alcohol producers, pulp and paper, petroleum companies and cotton producers.
Presently, municipal, provincial, state and federal governments across the world wrestle with popular forces that have insisted that marijuana be decriminalized and legalized. Traditional forces of banking, health and drug industries have yet to fully align with the new paradigm and promote conflicting policies. For example, in Canada, while the Federal government has recognized marijuana's potential as a medicine, provincial governments simultaneously state it has no medicinal value. Other medical groups chime in saying that there is no research done on marijuana, ignoring tens of thousands of peer reviewed papers readily available on PubMed.
Once the dust settles, It is expected that big corporations will come in and buy out most of the pioneers, for hundreds of millions or billions of dollars. At that point, the marijuana industry will be highly regulated where only the rich can afford to play. This is the template, this is the trend.
THE US CONSTITUTION AND MARIJUANA
Why is Cannabis illegal under Federal Law and legal under State laws?
Under the constitution, authority over cannabis and its rules and regulations and designated to the individual states. However, the constitution also says that inter-state affairs are the jurisdiction of the Federal government and this is where things go wrong. The Feds claim that marijuana is an interstate matter and the states disagree.
Thus the states have enacted their own marijuana laws citing their rights under the constitution and POTUS Donald Trump agrees, or at least he agreed in his campaigne speaches.
CANNABIS TESTING & QUALITY CONTROL
What is the focus of marijuana testing?
To establish potency of active ingredients and show its safe to consume, that it is free of appreciable amounts of toxins and contaminants.
What parameters are tested in comprehensive quality control of medical marijuana?
Cannabinoids, THC, CBD, terpenes, herbicides, pesticides, heavy metals, microorganisms: bacteria, mold, aflatoxins.
What laboratory instruments are used to determine the quantity of THC and CBD in cannabis?
High pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). HPLC can determine acids while GC (gas chromatography) cannot.
How are microorganisms usually determined in cannabis?
A sample in a dish with growing medium. Microbe colonies grow to the point where they can be observed with the naked eye, show up under UV light, or can be identified under a microscope.
What is a cannabinoid profile?
This is a measure of the cannabinoids and should include:THC, THCa, CBD, CBDa, CBN
How does Gas and Liquid Chromatography work to determine the quantity and type of cannabinoids in a sample?
GC - Gas Chromatography
In GC testing, a cannabis sample is first prepared by grinding up the samples and extracting the cannabinoids with an organic solvent. The solvent extract is injected into the GC instrument where it is gradually heated. As the temperature rises, the terpenes, cannabinoids and other molecules boil off in sequence. The sample vapor is transported through a long tube (called a column), which separates the molecular components. The sample is ionized, electrically charged and meets a detector, which measures the voltage or captures the molecules and their fragments. All of these processes are computer controlled. The analysts sees the molecular components as peaks, which is called a chromatogram. The height of the peak is proportional to the amount of analyte.
HPLC - High Performance Liquid Chromatography
In LC testing, the cannabis solvent extract is injected into the instrument, where it pumped under high pressure through a column containing a chemically inert material the causes the components to separate. A detector measures quantity of each component. Detectors may measure the absorbance of light or quantity of ions (in mass spectrometry) to determine the quantity of cannabinoids and other molecules with similar chemical properties.
What is a chain of custody?
A chain of custody establishes the origin and travel of a cannabis product sample: from seed to grower to transporter, to laboratory to dispensary to sale. In a laboratory, a chain of custody is submitted with each sample specifying the strain owner details, the strain, amount, and testing instructions, such as a pesticide screen, terpene and cannabinoid profile, mold and fungus test.
EXTRACTIONS & FORMULATIONS
What solvents are used to extract oil?
Butane, hexane, naptha, petroleum ether, methanol, ethanol, isopropyl alcohol, vegetable oils, ether, chloroform, other non-polar liquids.
Which solvents are best?
Non toxic ones such as olive oil, ethanol or low toxicity solvents that are easily removed, such as butane. Solvents are most often flammable and special license and facilities are often required for manufacture.
Which solvents are worst?
Heavy and toxic solvents, like naphtha, hexane, wood alcohol, methanol. While butane is easily removed from the cannabis oil concentrate, it is very explosive and is a real fire hazard, which has destroyed many a facility. Carbon Dioxide under pressure can be used to extract cannabinoids as well.
What is in a cannabis tincture?
Tinctures are concentrated extracts of cannabis in grain alcohol (ethanol). A few drops of a tinctures is taken under the tongue. Tinctures with CBD are commonly used by children and epileptics to control or halt seizures.
What is e-liquid made of?
Vegetable Glycerin, propylene glycol, grain alcohol, flavors, cannabinoids, terpenes,
What is shatter?
Shatter is crystallized, moisture free cannabis oil. Shatter and Oil have the similar concentrations of cannabinoids, however some shatter types may contain less of the volatile or lighter components of water, land residual terpenes.
What is Keif?
Keif is the fine particles that fall from from cannabis flowers during harvest and processing. Keif is very high in cannabinoids, oil, resin and terpenes. Kief may be processed into hash cakes, smoked or used as a raw material to produce concentrates.
What is Hash?
Hash is semi-processed marijuana flower, where the stems and twigs are commonly removed and the residual is rich in resin, oils and cannabinoids. Hashish has a long shelf life and over time the THC degrades into Cannabinol, which has useful medicinal and recreational properties as well.
What is Honey Oil?
Honey oil is simply cannabis oil extracted from bud. Most commonly butane is used as a solvent.
What is Spice?
Spice is a colloquial term for synthetic cannabinoids. While phytocannabinoids have never been associated with any long term toxicity event, the same cannot be said for Spice, where there are thousands of cases of misadventure, many of which resulted in grievous bodily injury and even death. Some synthetic cannabinoids have 1000x more potency that THC which make some of them dangerous commodities indeed.
MEDICAL PAPERS AND PATENTS
Give a ballpark number: How many patents have been granted for medical cannabis applications?
Answer: there are thousands of patents on cannabis and cannabinoids. In 2017, Google Patents + "cannabis medical" revealed 4585 entries.
In the 1920's, was alcohol containing marijuana legal during alcohol prohibition?
Yes Cannabis extracts in whiskey was widely prescribed with a physician's note during prohibition, while whiskey alone was illegal. This fact illustrates how Federal laws flip flop over time, booze bad, then OK, marijuana OK, then bad, opium bad, then OK under prescription, etc.
Did US doctors lobby to have cannabis banned?
No, the US Pharmacopeia was reluctant to remove cannabis, many doctors objected. It took a couple of years of marijuana prohibition before the Feds could pressure physicians and surgeons to remove cannabis from their literature. Thus, history was rewritten by the powers that be.
Does the Federal Government hold patents that claim that cannabis ingredients have medical efficacy?
Yes, the Feds have many patents (numbers) that claim that medical efficacy while Jeff Sessions and the DEA simultaneously claim that cannabis has no medical value.
Is CBD illegal?
Yes and no. At the state level CBD can be a legal substance. TheDEA has recently ruled that CBD - the main non-psychoactive component - is a dangerous narcotic without medical value - and is a schedule I drug, which puts it in the same category as heroin and crack. Meanwhile CBD has never been a street drug, nor has there been a recorded death attributed to this natural substance.
The Fed's ruling of CBD to be a Schedule I substance has not been challenged in Federal court.
The DEA's CBD ruling is seen as a Rubicon moment, as the ruling is universally seen as transparently fraudluant. What little respect the DEA might have had concerning marijuana is now, without doubt, completely gone.
Are there any medical patents for THC and CBD?
Yes there are, the Federal Government holds several medical marijuana patents, which makes the DEA's stance that marijuana has no medicle value to be patently false, pardon the pun.
Cannabis and its components CBD and THC have medical value, so says the US Patent Office!
Click on CANNABIS MEDICAL PATENTS to see that it's an open and shut case.
The rest of the story, A to Z basics of cannabis - seldom if ever found anywhere on the net in one place. All for free, but if you need a medical marijuana card, please purcnase one here.
Once you understand and retain all of the information presented here, you'll have laid a solid foundation in every basic area involving cannabis. In fact , you could easily be confused with a master of cannabis.