ADDING TERPENES TO CONCENTRATES - THE SCIENCE AND THE EFFECTS
Concentrates with Terpenes is the Cutting Edge of Cannabis Based Medicines
"For SURE, Terpenes helps to achieve many altered states." Allan I Frankel, MD
Before we get into all the wonderful medical and recreational aspects of terpenes, let's briefly describe what a terpene is. What are Terpenes and what is their effect in making Marijuana Tinctures?
The Terpenes are class of small multi-carbon chained molecules found everwhere in the plant kingdom. They give a straint its flavor, boquet its character. Terpene aroma is a means of communication to animals, insects, and other plants, that all have the ability to sense or smell these small molecules. Bees may be attracted to the flower full of pollen (and terpenes) while other insects avoid some types of terpenes, particularly those in bark, which are a deadly toxin.
Terpenes are seen as “balancers and communicators” in cannabis, where they can amplify, moderate or enhance the activity of THC and the other cannabinoids, by reacting with the CB1 and probably the CB2 receptors that effect many physical and psychological functions in the body.
"Cannabinoid receptors, located throughout the body, are part of the Endocannabinoid system which is involved in a variety of physiological processes including appetite, pain-sensation, mood, and memory." - Wiki
VAPING TERPENES BY THEMSELVES
People are asking questions about terpenes, like has anyone vaporized individual terpenes, such as myrcene, pinene, limonene, or any essential oil, or added it to a cannabis extract? The answer is a definitive yes.
ANYONE ADDED TERPENES TO OIL OR BUD?
Commercial producers are now adding terpenes produced by the plant, back into the extract that have been lost in heating. Big pharma is also looking into dosing terpene groupings via a nebulizer.
HOW TO USE YOUR NOSE
I got a really good sniffer. At the moment, I'm connecting strains that I grew in the past by scent. There are minor differences in smell, but there is usually one overwhelming scent that I'm usually looking for. I need to get the separate terpenes, like eucalyptus and whatnot to sus things out.
I got a mixed bag of seeds that a guy had kept from Cup winners from Amsterdam. He'd give seeds to local growers and get flowers and seeds back. Whenever he'd find a seed in the buds, he'd throw it in a baggie. That baggie was the start of breeding projects back in the day. The reason I named them according to smell, was to remember what they were, as i never had any idea what the genetics were of what I was putting down, and could never cross something similar back to it, unless by accident.
You are able to influence the outcome of your terpene profiles. Its difficult to "add" a new terpene in the garden, but setting up precursors to existing profiles is possible.. Its time consuming with palpable results. Coffee is my latest one, but pineapples, lemons, mango's, anise, eucalyptus, and pine are my stars. These individual terpenes may have medicinal properties by themselves, and a tuned body can know if the bud is good for them or better for them, with a sniff maybe.
Limonene passes the brain/blood barrier lightning fast compared to none. Strains high in that profile will definitely report different effects than strains without. Influencing the smaller instances of limonene in a particular strain could have a beneficial use in medicine. Custom cannabis cultivation that are produces higher occurrence of specific terpenes is in Marijuana's future.
Everyone already does breed by smell but the results are varied ALL Marijuana will express fully, if given the opportunity, as experienced growers know. The differences can be sensed in the dispensary, when comparing a seven dollars a gram bud to twenty dollar gram bud. It seems that doing it right is worth three times the money as doing it poorly.
That's the precedent set in the community. This might change though, when everyone learns how to supply their plants exactly what they need, and when they need it....every plant will be the top bud, and patients will rejoice .
TERPENES BURN YOUR NOSE?
"You'd have to be very careful. You can burn lungs/nose just to breath/smell some of the terpenes found in wood and plants.that's not even talking about concentrating it. "
Not really, sensitive noses might burn a little, but inhaling essential oils (which are terpene mixes), such as peppermint can definitely burn quite a bit. These very volatile terpenes are especially useful as insectisides, perfumes (a little goes a long way), anti-microbial agents, and medicinals.
ADDING TERPENES TO HONEY OIL
Commercial producers are now adding these terpenes, already produced by the plant, back into the extraction to make up for loss due to heat. Big pharma is looking at dosing of terpene groupings via the nebulizer.
PURE GOLD MIX - CANNABINOIDS PLUS TERPENES PLUS FLAVANOIDS
PureGold, the core active ingredient of TetraLabs products, which offers rapid relief for appetite loss, nausea, inflammation, pain and other symptoms. PureGold is not an extract or hash oil. Rather, it consists of the pure cannabinoids refined from hash oil. Then the cananbinoids are mixed with naturall occuring terpenes and / or other ingredients such as flavanoids..
Smokable PureGold contains 93% pure natural cannabinoids, comprised of approximately 87% Δ9 and other THC isomers, 2% CBG, 3% CBN, 1% CBD, along with 2% other terpenes. Smokable PureGold also includes 5% d-limonene (added back), a naturally occurring terpene found in orange oil and other plants, including Marijuana. Testers report that limonene improves smoke-ability and improves the affect. Limonene also is an antioxidant and with fragrance of oranges. PureGold Classic is a pale yellow viscous liquid, with variations that contain flavonoids, Flavonoids are amber colored antioxidants. PureGold is generally heated and inhaled in pure form. One drop should last a long time if properly smoked. PureGold leaves patients clear-headed without the fuzzy, dopey character of some Marijuana.
Various extraction methods have their pros and cons. Using hexane or other toxic solvent to extract Marijuana oil can leave poisonous residues behind. Critical CO2 extraction, while cleaner, requires expensive, sophisticated equipment and technical smarts. In either case, the extract maker will have to add the terpenes back into oil concentrate in order to maximize therapeutic potential.
David Watson, the alchemist behind foundational hybrid Skunk #1, was among the first to promote the importance of cannabis terpenes for their ability to modifying impact on THC. Based in Amsterdam, these Wilson et.al. broke new ground in horticultural pharmacology as they crossed and recrossed thousands of Marijuana varieties, discarding most along the way, while selecting a fraction for further development. Terpenes were used to select which plants made the cut. They simply smelled them, and choose what was "good" from experience.
Wilson suspected that the terpenes present in Marijuana resin enhance the potency of THC. Watson tested his hypothesis in an experiment that compared the subjective effects of 100 % THC to lesser amounts in terpene-infused Marijuana resin. The finding was that the terpene-infused resin with 50 % THC was more potent by dry weight than an equivalent amount of pure THC.
Typically, terpenes are volatile molecules that evaporate easily and readily announce themselves to the nose. Therein lies the basis of aromatherapy, a popular alternative-healing modality. Like their odorless cannabinoid cousins, terpenes are oily compounds secreted in the marijuana plant’s glandular trichomes. Terpenes and THC share a biochemical precursor, geranyl pyrophosphate, which develops into the cannabinoids and terpenoids that saturate the plant’s flower tops.
But unlike THC and the other plant cannabinoids that exist nowhere else but in marijuana, terpenes are ubiquitous throughout the natural world. Produced by countless plant species, terpenes are prevalent in fruits, vegetables, herbs, spices, and other botanicals. Terpenes are also common ingredients in the human diet and have generally been recognized as safe to consume by the US Food and Drug Administration.
Have you ever tasted a strawberry or watermelon candy and actually thought it tasted like either? You look at the wrapper to check the ingredients and see “artificial flavors added” or “no fruit juice is used in this product” and you know you are never going to confuse that flavor with the taste of real summer fresh strawberries or ripe sweet real watermelon. If you are particularly health conscious, then you might also think “I would rather not put artificial chemicals into my body” and “I would rather stick with organic produce”. The same consideration should be made when you vape Marijuana oils because there is a growing trend to “recreate” flavor profiles through the use of added terpenes.
Terpenes make the flavor profile of the Marijuana flower and studies show that terpenes play an important part in the medicinal value of Marijuana as they work with the cannabinoids. These days, in the race to attain pure THC, the use of solvents to achieve that goal strips the original terpenes out of the oil, leaving a taste that is something like stewed industrial waste. So, terpenes derived from things like oranges and papaya are added back to attempt to recreate the flavor profile of, say, a sour diesel for example. While that might improve upon something that is otherwise unpalatable, like the candy example, if you put enough sugar on dog doo you can make it edible but it is still dog doo. Besides, why destroy what was great enough as nature intended? Marinols are pure THC. Have you ever tried one of those and thought you would never use Marijuana any other way?
The issue is whether you know or know what has been added back into your Marijuana oil to recreate or enhance its flavor in terms of terpenes or its medicinal value in terms of potency. Producers only voluntarily reveal their methods of production or ingredients so the conflicts of interest are inherent. Do you always know if your oil was processed with Butane or what the purity is and would you be concerned how much butane was residual? You certainly wouldn’t want to inhale butane so knowing the purity of oil processed with it should be a concern and some companies don’t even disclose the fact that butane was used in their process.
The green rush is great but should not rush past the concerns for health and transparency. The processors of refined Marijuana products need to heed mindful and reasonable methods of production to assure safety and practice ethical disclosure so patients and recreational users know what they are using. The reforms for Marijuana law must continue and there is no reason to keep the negative stereotypes of old, where users had no idea what was in their product, or how potent it would be.
"These terpene-rich concentrates as the next step in the evolution of Marijuana."
THCd9 - d-9-tetrahydrocannabinol -solid
Melting point: 157*C / 314.6 degree Fahrenheit
Properties: Euphoriant, Analgesic, Antiinflammatory, Antioxidant, Antiemetic
CBD - cannabidiol - solid
Melting point: 160-180*C / 320-356 degree Fahrenheit
Properties: Anxiolytic, Analgesic, Antipsychotic, Anti Inflammatory, Antioxidant, Antispasmodic
CBN - cannabinol (CBN) - solid
Melting point: 185*C / 365 degree Fahrenheit
Properties: Oxidation, breakdown, product, Sedative, Antibiotic
CBC cannabichromene (CBC) - solid
Melting point: 220*C / 428 degree Fahrenheit
Properties: Antiinflammatory, Antibiotic, Antifungal
CBG cannabigerol (CBG) - solid
Melting point: MP52
Properties: Antiinflammatory, Antibiotic, Antifungal
THCd8- d-8-tetrahydrocannabinol (d-8-THC) - solid
Melting point: 175-178*C / 347-352.4 degree Fahrenheit Properties: Resembles d-9-THC,
Properties: Much less psychoactive, more stable Antiemetic
THCV- tetrahydrocannabivarin - solid
Melting point: < 220*C / <428 degree Fahrenheit
Properties: Analgesic, Euphoriant
ß-myrcene - liquid
Boiling point: 166-168*C / 330.8-334.4 degree Fahrenheit
Properties: Analgesic. Antiinflammatory, Antibiotic, Antimutagenic
ß-caryophyllene - liquid
Boiling point: 119*C / 246.2 degree Fahrenheit
Properties: Antiinflammatory, Cytoprotective (gastric mucosa), Antimalarial
d-limonene - liquid
Boiling point: 177*C / 350.6 degree Fahrenheit
Properties: Cannabinoid agonist?, Immune potentiator, Antidepressant, Antimutagenic
linalool - liquid
Boiling point: 198*C / 388.4 degree Fahrenheit
Properties: Sedative, Antidepressant, Anxiolytic, Immune potentiator
pulegone - liquid
Boiling point: 224*C / 435.2 degree Fahrenheit
Properties: Memory booster?, AChE inhibitor, Sedative, Antipyretic
1,8-cineole (eucalyptol) - liquid
Boiling point: 176*C / 348.8 degree Fahrenheit Properties: AChE inhibitor, Increases cerebral, blood flow, Stimulant, Antibiotic, Antiviral, Anti Inflammatory, Antinociceptive
a-pinene - liquid
Boiling point: 156*C / 312.8 degree Fahrenheit
Properties: Antiinflammatory, Bronchodilator, Stimulant, Antibiotic, Antineoplastic, AChE inhibitor
a-terpineol - liquid
Boiling point: 217-218*C / 422.6-424.4 degree Fahrenheit
Properties: Sedative, Antibiotic, AChE inhibitor, Antioxidant, Antimalarial
terpineol-4-ol - liquid
Boiling point: 209*C / 408.2 degree Fahrenheit
Properties: AChE inhibitor. Antibiotic
p-cymene - liquid
Boiling point: 177*C / 350.6 degree Fahrenheit
Properties: Antibiotic, Anticandidal, AChE inhibitor
apigenin - solid
Melting point: 178*C / 352.4 degree Fahrenheit
Properties: Anxiolytic, Antiinflammatory, Estrogenic
quercetin - solid
Melting point: 250*C / 482 degree Fahrenheit
Properties: Antioxidant, Antimutagenic, Antiviral, Antineoplastic
can-flavin-A - solid
Melting point: 182*C / 359.6 degree Fahrenheit
Properties: COX inhibitor, LO inhibitor
ß-sitosterol - solid
Melting point: 134*C / 273.2 degree Fahrenheit
Properties: Antiinflammatory, 5-a-reductase, inhibitor
Marijuana concentrates have jumped to the forefront of the industry in recent years. An increasing number of patients are turning to the rapid relief offered by portable vape pens and glass concentrate rigs, that allows the intake a high concentration of cannabinoids, in seconds.
Traditionally, many concentrate manufacturers strive for the highest percentage of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in their product as possible. But as the knowledge base increases about the medicinal effects of other cannabinoids and terpenes, and their interaction, a great deal of interest (and demand) for a new class of terpene-rich concentrate has been created. And the market has responded with a host of new "elite" cannabis based medicines with a cherry on top, which is added terpenes.
HOLY WATER AND TERP SAP
If you’ve been paying attention to the concentrate community, then you’ve heard the term Holy Water. With a host of endorsements from Marijuana industry icons, it seems clear that we’re seeing the next step in the evolution of cannabis concentrates.
Some are confusion as to what Holy Water actually is. Some people think that Holy Water contains actual water or solvent, such as residual butane, and these people would be wrong.
Cannabis concentrate average 4% total terpenoid content.
Holy Water has 20% terpenes or more.
Holy Water is in fact BHO spiked with terpenes, which is made in a similar process that makes wax, shatter, etc. A higher terpene content will make an extract more liquid like or sappy, because they are liquids, while pure cannabinoids are solid.
“As much of 60% of a plant’s terpene content is lost during the drying process.” – Kenneth “K” Morrow
Addison DeMoura, COO of Steep Hill Halent Labs, is a self-proclaimed concentrate lover and has seemingly made it his mission to help improve the community’s knowledge on the topic. As he explains, the aroma from a one-gram container of Holy Water is comparable to that of “a whole bag of weed.”
DeMoura goes on to say that most samples of concentrate clock-in with around 4% total terpenoid content. Holy Water, on the other hand, has routinely been tested with 20% terps or more.
Many people jump to the conclusion that Holy Water must contain a certain amount of terpenes that were reintroduced to the formula at some point. This is true of The Clear, in which food-grade terpenes are added to enhance the flavor, but Holy Water is a different beast. The producers simply use a process that allows for the preservation of much higher levels of terpenes from the live Marijuana plant, hence the term live resin. Holy Water has nearly twice the terpene content of the average batches of The Clear.
Kenneth “K” Morrow, founder of Trichome Technologies, the Handbook of Essential Oils reports that as much as 60% of a plant’s terpenes are in drying. On top of that, terpenes are lost or removed entirely in post-drying extraction techniques. The answer is to extract right away from the raw herb and collect the terpenes as they "blow" off during the extraction process, and reintroduce them (mix) them back into the product, which results in the very incredible product, Holy Water. In other words, Holy Water simply preserves all the ingredients found in the plant that can be extracted into a solvent. Making a tea from cannabis is a very easy way to absorb the rest of the components, the polar compounds that don't dissolve in butane and other non-polar solvents.
Terpene-rich concentrates are already a favorite among connoisseurs. Patients who are looking for a high dose of THC, but want an elilte medical experience can simply mix a bit of Holy Water or Terp Sap into their favorite concentrate. But people should beware that both Holy Water and The Clear can test 90% THC.
The main thing people should ask for, when considering a concentrate like Holy Water, is to ask what solvent was used in the extraction. If the solvent was butane for example, then you should ask to see their test results of the final product that shows no residual butane. Also, ideally you want to see the CBD, THC, and terpene contents quantified. If ethanol is used as a solvent, you need not worry because this substance is non-toxic in this practice.
Editor Note: A Holy Water with 40% CBD, 40% THC, and 20% terpenes and flavanoids would be Holyier than Thou.
QUOTES ABOUT TERPENES IN CANNABIS OIL EXTRACTS
"The amount of flavor found in one tiny bottle of Holy Water or Terp Sap is enough to change a person’s perspective on the amount of flavor that concentrate makers can achieve."
"I would expect Holy Water's liquid consistency to be nearly perfect for use with portable vape pens like the Cloud Platinum, Vaped Nano, and the Dr. GreenThumb X Cloud Pen. However, it will be runnier than what patients who prefer to dab their concentrates are used to." - Rob SpOILed
“Patients who are looking for a high dose of THC from their dabs are able to get the best of both worlds by mixing a bit of Holy Water with their favorite concentrate.” - Horatio Delbert unveiled his limonene honey oil (LHO). at the Pacific Northwest Secret Cup.
MMJDOCTORONLINE NOTES: Same day medical marijuana ID, recommendations, cultivation permits and renewals for use in California and Nevada at licensed dispensaries, cannabis clubs, delivery services, and other vendors of cannabis based medicines. Patients don't pay unless they are approved by a licensed Californian physician.