Easily the #1 treatment for Epilepsy - Cannabinoids

Easily the #1 treatment for Epilepsy - Cannabinoids

The consensus opinion formed from these 21 research papers is that CBD found in Cannabis works very well to control seizures in the majority of Epileptic Patients. 

Other cannabinoids work in concert to deliver even greater efficacy. 

Cannabis based medicines are also effective when taken with other anti-epileptic drugs.  Though adverse reactions exist, researchers invariably call cannabinoids remarkably safe and well tolerated...




1 Results of Epidiolex trial in Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome announced. Epilepsy Research.org. June 28, the year of 2016.

1 This phase three clinical trial enrolled 171 participants, aged two to fifty-five years, with drug-resistant LGS (Lennox-Gastault Syndrome).

All participants were already taking one or more antiepileptic drug - AED . The participants were randomly divided into two groups, one in which people were given Epidiolex (purified cannabidiol-CBD) on top their existing Anti-epileptic Drug - AED, other in which subjects were given a placebo (sugar pill) instead of Epidiolex. Neither the clinicians nor the participants knew who was in which group - a method used to avoid bias known as a double-blind trial.

1 The results showed that at the end of a 14-week period, participants who took  Epidiolex (CBD) together with their existing Anti-epileptic Drug or AEDs had a monthly reduction in seizures of 44 percent, compared to 22 percent in the placebo group.

1 The study also showed that Epidiolex (synthetic cannabinoid-CBD) was generally well-tolerated. The most common side effects were diarrhoea, somnolence, decreased appetite, high temperature, and vomiting.


2 Medical cannabis liquid extract may bring hope for children with severe epilepsy, American Academy of Neurology press release,  April 13, the year of 2015.

2 The participants were given the drug cannabidiol, a component of cannabis that does not include the psychoactive part of the plant that creates a “high.” The drug is a liquid taken daily by mouth. Participants all knew they were receiving the drug in the open-label study, which was designed to determine whether the drug was safe and tolerated well.

2 Researchers also measured the number of seizures participants had while taking the drug. For the 137 people who completed the 12-week study, the number of seizures decreased by an average of 54 percent from the beginning of the study to the end. Among the 23 people with Dravet syndrome who finished the study, the number of convulsive seizures had gone down by 53 percent by the end of the study. For the 11 people with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome who finished the study, there was a 55 percent reduction in the number of atonic seizures, which cause a sudden loss of muscle tone.

2 A total of 12 people, or 6 percent, stopped taking the drug due to side effects. Side effects that occurred in more than 10 percent of participants included drowsiness - 21 percent- , diarrhea - 17 percent- , tiredness - 17 percent-  and decreased appetite - 16 percent- .


3 Cannabinol-CBD-enriched medical marijuana for intractable pediatric - children-  epilepsy: The current Israeli experience. Tzadok et-al the year of 2016. ,Seizure. .

3 PURPOSE: To describe the experience of five Israeli pediatric epilepsy clinics treating children and adolescents diagnosed as having intractable epilepsy with a regimen of medical marijuana oil.

3 METHODS: A retrospective study describing the effect of cannabidiol - CBD-enriched medical marijuana on children with epilepsy. The cohort included 74 subjects - age range 1-18 years-  with intractable epilepsy resistant to >7 antiepileptic drugs. Forty-nine - 66 percent-  also failed a ketogenic diet, vagal nerve stimulator implantation, or both. They all started medical marijuana oil treatment and were treated for at least 3 months - with an average of 6 months- . The selected formula contained Cannabinol-CBD and d9THC at a ratio of 20:1 dissolved in olive oil. The Cannabinol-CBD dose ranged from 1 to 20 milligrams/kilogram/day. Seizure frequency was assessed by parental report during clinical visits.

3 RESULTS: Cannabinol-CBD treatment yielded a significant positive effect on seizure load. Most of the children - 66/74, 89 percent-  reported reduction in seizure frequency: 13 - 18 percent-  reported 75 to one-hundred percent reduction, twenty-five or 34 percent reported a 50-75 percent reduction. 9 - 12 percent reported twenty-five-fifty percent reduction, and 19 - 26 percent  reported <twenty-five percent reduction.

3 Five or seven percent of subjects reported aggravation of seizures, which led to Cannabinol-CBD withdrawal. In addition, we observed improvement in behavior and alertness, language, communication, motor skills and sleep. Adverse reactions included somnolence, fatigue, gastrointestinal disturbances and irritability leading to withdrawal of marijuana use in 5 subjects.

Cannabis Research Explodes



Editor's note:  It has been found that CBD has a sweet spot, an optimal dose, where over consumption can result in the worsening of seizures.  The 5 percent of subjects would be advised to start with a very small initial dose and work upward to find the minimal optimal dose.  

3 CONCLUSIONS: The results of this multicenter study on Cannabinol-CBD treatment for intractable epilepsy in a population of children and adolescents are highly promising. Further prospective, well-designed clinical trials using enriched Cannabinol-CBD medical marijuana is warranted.


4 Marijuana use in adults admitted to a Canadian epilepsy monitoring unit.Massot-Tarrus & McLachlan. 2016. Epilepsy & Behavior 63: 73 to 78.

4 We determined the prevalence of cannabis use and its perceived effects in subjects with and without epilepsy.



4 METHODS: Information was collected over fourteen months from consecutive adult subjects admitted to an epilepsy monitoring unit using a  twenty-seven -item anonymous questionnaire. subjects with cognitive impairment unable to understand the questions or give informed consent and readmissions were not recruited. Subjects were divided into four groups, those with epileptic seizures, those with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures - PNES- , those with both epileptic and PNES, and those with other nonepileptic events. subjects with exclusively epileptic seizures were compared with those with exclusively PNES - psychogenic nonepileptic seizures .

4 RESULTS: From 310 subjects, 18 undiagnosed cases were excluded, leaving a cohort of 292 subjects with median age 35 - range:  twenty-seven -forty-nine-  years; 57.2 percent female. Epilepsy was documented in 190 - 65.1 percent- , PNES in 64 - 21.9 percent- , and both types of seizures in 26 - 8.9 percent- . Median duration of seizure disorder was longer - 2 vs. 13 years; p<0.001-  and seizure frequency lower - daily or weekly in 62.3 percent vs. 44.9 percent; p=0.03-  in subjects with epilepsy compared with those in subjects with PNES psychogenic nonepileptic seizures . Overall, 166 subjects or - 57 percent-  had tried cannabis, and 36.2 percent used it over the past year.

4 Utilization was 57.1 percent in sole epilepsy and 64.1 percent in sole PNES, but daily use was more likely in epilepsy - 59 percent vs. 33.3 percent- . The estimated mean dose was 1g/day. Marijuana use was associated with tobacco smoking - p<0.001-  but not alcohol use. Eight subjects used other street drugs. Improvement in seizures was perceived by 84 percent in those with epilepsy and 72.7 percent in those with PNES. In the 2 groups, stress was decreased in 84.9 percent and 88 percent, sleep improved in 77.3 percent and 88 percent, and memory/concentration was better in 32 percent and 28 percent, respectively.

4 Antiepileptic drug side effects were decreased in 53.2 percent of cannabis users. Perceived effect on epileptic seizures correlated with effect on stress - r=0.35, p=0.004- . Adverse effects of cannabis were mild and reported in 30.7 percent, but included possible seizure precipitation in 5 subjects with epilepsy.

4 SIGNIFICANCE: subjects with uncontrolled epilepsy or nonepileptic events had a high rate of cannabis use with associated perceived improvements in seizure control, stress, sleep, and drug side effects. Stress reduction may contribute to the perceived impact of cannabis on seizures and nonepileptic events in adults.


5 Marijuana stops child's severe seizures. Saundra Young, CNN.com. August 7, 2013.

5 She was having 300 grand mal seizures a week.  Her heart had stopped a number of times. When it happened at home, Paige did cardiopulmonary resuscitation until an ambulance arrived. When it happened in the hospital, where they'd already signed a do-not-resuscitate order, they said their goodbyes. Physicians had even suggested putting Charlotte in a medically induced coma to give her small, battered body a rest.

5 She was 5 when the Figis learned there was nothing more the hospital could do.  That's when Paige decided to try medical cannabis. But finding two physicians to sign off on a medical cannabis card for Charlotte was no easy feat. She was the youngest patient in the state ever to apply.

5 Charlotte gets a dose of the marijuana oil twice a day in her food.  Gedde found three to four milligrams of oil per pound of the girl's body weight stopped the seizures.  Today, Charlotte, six years old, is thriving. Her seizures only happen two to three times per month, almost solely in her sleep. Not only is she walking, she may ride her bicycle. She feeds herself and is talking more and more each day.

5 "I literally see Charlotte's brain, making connections that haven't been made in years," Matt said. "My thought now is, why were we the ones that had to go out and find this cure? This natural cure? How come a physician didn't know about this? How come they didn't make me aware of this?"

5 The cannabis strain Charlotte and now 41 other subjects use to ease painful symptoms of diseases such as epilepsy and cancer has been named after the little girl who is getting her life back one day at a time. It's called Charlotte's Web.

5 "I didn't hear her laugh for six months," Paige said. "I didn't hear her voice at all, just her crying. I can't imagine that I would be watching her making these gains that she's making, doing the things that she's doing - without the medical cannabis- . I don't take it for granted. Every day is a blessing."


6 Cannabidiol as a new treatment for drug-resistant epilepsy in tuberous sclerosis complex.,Hess et-al the year of 2016. Epilepsia. .

6 These findings suggest that cannabidiol may be an effective and well-tolerated treatment option for subjects with refractory seizures in tuberous sclerosis complex-TSC


6 OBJECTIVE: Tuberous sclerosis complex - tuberous sclerosis complex-TSC-  is an autosomal-dominant genetic disorder with highly variable expression. The most common neurologic manifestation of tuberous sclerosis complex-TSC is epilepsy, which affects approximately 85 percent of subjects, 63 percent of whom develop treatment-resistant epilepsy. Herein, we evaluate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of cannabidiol - CBD, a non psychoactive component derived from the cannabis plant, as an adjunct to current antiepileptic drugs in subjects with refractory seizures in the setting of tuberous sclerosis complex-TSC.

6 METHODS: Eighteen of the 56 subjects who have enrolled in our current expanded-access study of cannabidiol for subjects with treatment-resistant epilepsy carry a diagnosis of tuberous sclerosis complex-TSC. After an initial baseline period of 1 month, subjects began treatment with Cannabinol-CBD. The initial dose of 5 milligrams/kilogram/day was increased by 5 milligrams/kilogram/day every week up to a maximum dose of fifty milligrams/kilogram/day, if tolerated. Weekly seizure frequencies, percent change in seizure frequencies, and responder rates were calculated during the 2nd, 3rd, 6th, 9th, and 12th month of treatment with Cannabinol-CBD.

6 RESULTS: The median weekly seizure frequency during the baseline period was 22.0, which decreased to 13.3 after 3 months of treatment with cannabidiol. The median percent change in total weekly seizure frequency was -48.8 percent after 3 months of treatment.

6 SIGNIFICANCE: Although double-blind, placebo-controlled trials are still necessary, these findings suggest that cannabidiol may be an effective and well-tolerated treatment option for subjects with refractory seizures in tuberous sclerosis complex-TSC.



7 Report of a parent survey of cannabidiol-enriched marijuana use in pediatric - infant care-  treatment-resistant epilepsy. Porter & Jacobson. the year of 2013., Epilepsy & Behavior 29: 574 to 577.

Mom and Marijuana saved the day.


7 Severe childhood epilepsies are characterized by frequent seizures, neurodevelopmental delays, and impaired quality of life. In these treatment-resistant epilepsies, families often seek alternative treatments. This survey explored the use of cannabidiol-enriched marijuana in children with treatment-resistant epilepsy.

7 The survey was presented to parents belonging to a Facebook group dedicated to sharing information about the use of cannabidiol-enriched marijuana to treat their child's seizures. Nineteen responses met the following inclusion criteria for the study: a diagnosis of epilepsy and current use of cannabidiol-enriched marijuana. Thirteen children had Dravet syndrome, four had Doose syndrome, and one each had Lennox–Gastaut syndrome and idiopathic epilepsy.

7 The average number of antiepileptic drugs - AEDs-  tried before using cannabidiol-enriched marijuana was twelve...... Sixteen or 84 percent of the 19 parents reported a reduction in their child's seizure frequency while taking cannabidiol-enriched marijuana. Of these, two or eleven percent-  reported complete seizure freedom, eight - 42 percent-  reported a greater than 80 percent reduction in seizure frequency, and six - 32 percent-  reported a twenty-five or 60 percent seizure reduction. Other beneficial effects included increased alertness, better mood, and improved sleep. Side effects included drowsiness and fatigue.

7 Our survey shows that parents are using cannabidiol-enriched marijuana as a treatment for their children with treatment-resistant epilepsy. Because of the increasing number of states that allow access to medical marijuana, its use will likely be a growing concern for the epilepsy community. Safety and tolerability data for cannabidiol-enriched marijuana use among children are not available. Objective measurements of a standardized preparation of pure cannabidiol are needed to determine whether it is safe.



8 Perceived efficacy of cannabidiol-enriched marijuana extracts for treatment of pediatric - infant care-  epilepsy: A potential role for infantile spasms & Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Hussain et-al the year of 2015., Epilepsy & Behavior 47: 138 to 141.

8 We specifically recruited parents of children with IS and LGS and focused on perceived efficacy, dosage, and tolerability. Survey people included one-hundred seventeen parents of children with epilepsy - including 53 with IS or Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome - LGS-  who had administered Cannabinol-CBD products to their children. Perceived efficacy and tolerability were similar across etiologic subgroups. Eighty-five percent of all parents reported a reduction in seizure frequency, and fourteen  percent reported complete seizure freedom.

8 Epilepsy was characterized as highly refractory with a median latency from epilepsy onset to Cannabinol-CBD initiation of five years, during which the patient's seizures failed to improve after a median of eight antiseizure medication trials. The median duration and the median dosage of CBD exposure were 6.8 months and 4.3milligrams/kilogram/day, respectively. Reported side effects were far less common during Cannabinol-CBD exposure, with the exception of increased appetite = 30 percent.

8 A high proportion of people reported improvement in sleep - 53 percent- , alertness - 71 percent- , and mood - 63 percent-  during Cannabinol-CBD therapy. Although this study suggests a potential role for Cannabinol-CBD in the treatment of refractory childhood epilepsy, including IS and Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome - LGS, it does not represent compelling evidence of efficacy or safety. From a methodological standpoint, this study is extraordinarily vulnerable to participation bias and limited by lack of blinded outcome ascertainment. Appropriately controlled clinical trials are essential to establish efficacy and safety.



9 Parental reporting of response to oral marijuana extracts for treatment of refractory epilepsy.Press et-al the year of 2015. , Epilepsy & Behavior 45: 49 to 52.

9 Oral marijuana extracts - OCEs-  have been used in the treatment of epilepsy; however, no studies demonstrate clear efficacy. We report on a cohort of pediatric - children-  subjects with epilepsy who were given OCE and followed in a single tertiary epilepsy center.

9 METHODS: A retrospective chart review of children and adolescents who were given OCE for treatment of their epilepsy was performed.

9 RESULTS: Seventy-five subjects were identified of which 57 percent reported any improvement in seizure control and 33 percent reported a >fifty percent reduction in seizures - responders- . If the family had moved to CO for OCE treatment, the responder rate was 47 percent vs. 22 percent for children who already were in CO. The responder rate varied based on epilepsy syndrome type: Dravet 23 percent and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome - LGS-  88.9 percent.

9 The background EEG of the 8 responders where EEG data were available was not improved. Additional benefits reported included: improved behavior/alertness - 33 percent- , improved language - 10 percent- , and improved motor skills - 10 percent- . Adverse events - AEs-  occurred in 44 percent of subjects including increased seizures - 13 percent-  and somnolence/fatigue - 12 percent- . Rare adverse events included developmental regression, abnormal movements, status epilepticus requiring intubation - inserting a tube into the body -  and also death.

9 SIGNIFICANCE: Our retrospective study of OCE use in pediatric - children-  subjects with epilepsy demonstrates that some families reported patient improvement with treatment; however, we also found a variety of challenges and possible confounding factors in studying OCE retrospectively in an open-labeled fashion. We strongly support the need for controlled, blinded studies to evaluate the efficacy and safety of OCE for treatment of pediatric - children-  epilepsies using accurate seizure counts, formal neurocognitive assessments, as well as EEG as a biomarker. This study provides Class III evidence that OCE is well tolerated by children and adolescents with epilepsy.



10  FDA-approved medical cannabis clinical trial gets underway next month for kids with epilepsy, Susan Livio, New Jersey Star-Ledger. December 6, the year of 2013..

10 Based on the experiences of other families whose children have Dravet, the children who were weaned off the anti-seizure drug Benzodiazepine -- a tranquilizer that prevents or stops seizures by slowing down the central nervous system -- saw the most benefits from cannabidiol. Cutting back on the "Benzo," even very slowly, has triggered many severe seizures,

10 "I think it's a great step in the direction of valid scientific research with marijuana, I'd like to see the data before we add on another pharmaceutical, because at the end of the day it is a another pharmaceutical."

10 These are the first trials in human for this particular component.  Brian Wilson said getting Vivian into the trial would take a "hard core withdrawal" from the Benzo. "I'd hate to expose Vivian to that until we know it will work."

10 Parents whose children have Dravet, Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and other serious seizure disorders, say they are eager to try cannabidiol produced by growers in Colorado that has helped reduce seizure activity in more than one-hundred children. But none of the three medical cannabis dispensaries in New Jersey -- including one that opened Wednesday and another Oct. 28 - carry the strains of pot that have shown any promise. No one has submitted a proposal approved by the state to produce a pot-infused edible product, which under state law are available for children.



Multiple Sclerosis - Medical Marijuana Research Papers Worldwide - 2000- 2017


11 Phytocannabinoids n the treatment of epilepsy. Friedman & Devinsky. the year of 2015. New England Journal of Medicine 373: 1048 to 1058.

11 The pharmacologic and biochemical features of phytocannabinoids make them candidates for antiseizure medications. At this time, anecdotes have outstripped controlled clinical trials as sources of support for their clinical value.

11 Disclosure forms provided by the authors are available with the full text of this article at NEJM.org.
Dr. Devinsky reports receiving grant support from GW Pharmaceuticals and Novartis and serving on the scientific advisory board of MiaMed; and Dr. Friedman, receiving fees for serving on an advisory board for Marinus Pharmaceuticals and consulting fees from Eisai, Marinus Pharmaceuticals, SK

11 Biopharmaceuticals, Upsher-Smith Laboratories, and Pfizer, all of which were paid to the Epilepsy Study Consortium. No other potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.



12 Marijuana chemical shows promise for hard-to-treat epilepsy in kids.Dennis Thompson, HealthDay. December 8, the year of 2015.

12 Evidence is mounting that a cannabis-derived oil might benefit some children with epilepsy whose seizures aren't controlled by approved medications, two new studies show. Cannabidiol - CBD significantly reduced seizures in as many as half of children with epilepsy, researchers planned to report Monday at the American Epilepsy Society's annual meeting, in Philadelphia.

12 But experts say these positive findings may have been influenced by a "placebo effect." All participants in these studies knew they were taking the oil, which could have affected reports of its effectiveness.

"We know that our placebo rates may be as high as 30 percent, and sometimes higher," said Dr. Amy Brooks-Kayal, American Epilepsy Society president, who wasn't involved in the studies.

12 "We don't know the real effect of the cannabidiol, and we won't until we complete the studies that are ongoing that are placebo-controlled and blinded," added Brooks-Kayal, who is also a professor of pediatrics, neurology and pharmaceutical sciences at the University of Colorado School of Medicine.

12 There also are concerns that cannabidiol may interact badly with some anti-seizure medications approved for epilepsy treatment, according to another study scheduled for presentation at the meeting.



13 Cannabidiol in subjects with treatment-resistant epilepsy: an open-label interventional trial. Devinsky et-al the year of 2015. Lancet Neurology. .

13 BACKGROUND: Almost a third of subjects with epilepsy have a treatment-resistant form, which is associated with severe morbidity and increased mortality. marijuana-based treatments for epilepsy have generated much interest, but scientific data are scarce. We aimed to establish whether addition of cannabidiol to existing anti-epileptic regimens would be safe, tolerated, and efficacious in  children and young adults with treatment-resistant epilepsy.

13 METHODS: In this open-label trial, subjects - aged 1-30 years-  with severe, intractable, childhood-onset, treatment-resistant epilepsy, who were receiving stable doses of antiepileptic drugs before study entry, were enrolled in an expanded-access programme at 11 epilepsy centres across the USA. subjects were given oral cannabidiol at 2-5 milligrams/kilogram per day, up-titrated until intolerance or to a maximum dose of twenty-five milligrams/kilogram or fifty milligrams/kilograms per day - dependent on the study site .

13 The primary objective was to establish the safety and tolerability of cannabidiol and the primary efficacy endpoint was median percentage change in the mean monthly frequency of motor seizures at 12 weeks. Comparisons of the percentage change in frequency of motor seizures were done with a Mann-Whitney U test.

13 INTERPRETATION: Our findings suggest that cannabidiol might reduce seizure frequency and might have an adequate safety profile in children and young adults with highly treatment-resistant epilepsy. Randomised controlled trials are warranted to characterise the safety profile and true efficacy of this component.



14 GW Pharmaceuticals announces second positive Phase III pivotal trial for Epidiolex - cannabidiol-  in the treatment of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. September 26, the year of 2016.

14 “The positive outcome in this second trial of Epidiolex (synthetic cannabinol-CBD) in subjects with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome demonstrates the effectiveness of this product in this particularly difficult to treat, childhood-onset epilepsy,” stated Orrin Devinsky, M.D., of New York University Langone Medical Center’s Comprehensive Epilepsy Center and principal investigator in the trial. “The data from the Epidiolex (synthetic cannabinol-CBD) Dravet and Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome - LGS studies offers the prospect of an FDA-approved Cannabinol-CBD medicine that shows both clinically meaningful seizure reduction and a consistent safety and tolerability profile. I believe Epidiolex (synthetic cannabinol-CBD) has the potential to become an important new option within the field of treatment-resistant epilepsy.”





15 Cannabidiol as a potential treatment for febrile - fever-  infection-related epilepsy syndrome - FIRES-  in the acute & chronic phases. Gofshteyn et-al the year of 2016.  Journal of Child Neurology. .

The authors add cannabidiol as a possible treatment for FIRES.

15 Febrile - fever-  infection-related epilepsy syndrome - FIRES-  is a devastating epilepsy affecting normal children after a febrile - fever-  illness. FIRES presents with an acute phase with super-refractory status epilepticus and all subjects progress to a chronic phase with persistent refractory epilepsy. The typical outcome is severe encephalopathy or death.

15 The authors present seven children from five centers with FIRES who had not responded to antiepileptic drugs or other therapies who were given cannabidiol - Epidiolex (synthetic cannabinol-CBD) from GW Pharma-  on emergency or expanded investigational protocols in either the acute or chronic phase of illness.

15 After starting cannabidiol, six of seven subjects' seizures improved in frequency and duration. One patient died due to multiorgan failure secondary to isoflurane. An average of 4 antiepileptic drugs were weaned. Currently 5 subjects are ambulatory, 1 walks with assistance, and 4 are verbal. While this is an open-label case series, the authors add cannabidiol as a possible treatment for FIRES.



16 Drug–drug interaction between clobazam & cannabidiol in children with refractory epilepsy. Geoffrey et-al the year of 2015. Epilepsia 56: 1246 to 1251.

16 Cannabinol-CBD is a safe, effective treatment of refractory epilepsy in subjects receiving CLB treatment

16 Cannabinol-CBD is a safe and effective treatment of refractory epilepsy in subjects receiving clobazam - CLB treatment

16 Objective: Under an expanded access investigational new drug - IND-  trial, cannabidiol - CBD is being studied as a possible adjuvant treatment of refractory epilepsy in children. Of the twenty-five subjects in the trial, 13 were being treated with clobazam - CLB- . Because CLB and Cannabinol-CBD are both metabolized in the cytochrome P450 - CYP-  pathway, we predicted a drug–drug interaction, which we evaluate in this article.

16 Methods: Thirteen subjects with refractory epilepsy concomitantly taking CLB and Cannabinol-CBD under IND 119876 were included in this study. Demographic information was collected for each subject, including age, sex, and etiology of seizures, as well as concomitant antiepileptic drugs - AEDs- . CLB, N-desmethylclobazam - norclobazam; nCLB- , and Cannabinol-CBD levels were measured over the course of Cannabinol-CBD treatment. CLB doses were recorded at baseline and at weeks 4 and 8 of Cannabinol-CBD treatment. Side effects were monitored.

16 Results: We report elevated CLB and nCLB levels in these subjects. The mean - ± standard deviation-  increase in CLB levels was 60 ± 80 percent with a 95 percent confidence interval - CI- at 4 weeks- ; the mean increase in nCLB levels was 500 ± 300 percent - 95 percent CI at 4 weeks- . Nine of 13 subjects had a >fifty percent decrease in seizures, corresponding to a responder rate of 70 percent. The increased CLB and nCLB levels and decreases in seizure frequency occurred even though, over the course of Cannabinol-CBD treatment, CLB doses were reduced for 10 or 77 percent-  of the 13 subjects. Side effects were reported in 10 -or 77 percent-  of the 13 subjects, but were alleviated with CLB dose reduction.

16 Monitoring of CLB and nCLB levels is necessary for clinical care of subjects concomitantly on CLB and Cannabinol-CBD. Nonetheless, Cannabinol-CBD is a safe and effective treatment of refractory epilepsy in subjects receiving CLB treatment


17  Does medical cannabis oil work? UAB shares insight into Carly's Law study. Al.com/Birmingham News. January 29, the year of 2016.

17 "We have noticed that at least fifty percent of the subjects have more than a fifty percent reduction in seizures, which is very nice," Szaflarski said in an interview with AL.com this week. "Some of these subjects have multiple seizures per day. They report on Cannabinol-CBD that they have days without seizures, which is great."

17 Evidence of the positive impact of Cannabinol-CBD oil on subjects suffering from epilepsy has largely been anecdotal before the early results from the UAB study. The Cannabinol-CBD oil has less than 1 percent d9THC, which is what provides the psychoactive high from cannabis. With such a minimal presence of d9THC, the Cannabinol-CBD oil does not provide a high.

17 UAB is planning to present its findings in March to the American Academy of Neurology, where more than 10,000 neurologists worldwide will be in attendance, Szaflarski said.


18  Epilepsy Foundation calls for increased medical cannabis access & research, February 20, the year of the year of 2014, Epilepsy Foundation of America press release,.

18 The Epilepsy Foundation calls for an end to Drug Enforcement Administration - DEA-  restrictions that limit clinical trials and research into medical cannabis for epilepsy. We applaud recent decisions that have allowed clinical trials of Cannabidiol - CBD oil, to begin in several states. Certain components of medical cannabis, including Cannabinol-CBD, have shown effectiveness in animal studies, and there have been encouraging anecdotal reports from subjects. But further research and unbiased clinical trials are needed to establish whether and in what forms medical cannabis is or is not effective and safe. Restrictions on the use of medical cannabis continue to stand in the way of this research.

18 The Epilepsy Foundation believes that an end to seizures should not be determined by one’s zip code. Our current situation as an epilepsy community is not acceptable. Families looking to access medical cannabis as a treatment are facing terrible decisions. One parent may move across the country to live with a child to seek this treatment. Other families may uproot entirely, including leaving their job, to move where they may access Cannabinol-CBD oil. In the past, when therapies not yet approved by the Food and Drug Administration - FDA-  were available abroad and left only to those who could afford to travel, we fought for compassionate access. We are here to continue the fight.

18 The Epilepsy Foundation will be doing the following to support improved access and research into medical cannabis:

18 Calling on the Drug Enforcement Administration to implement a lesser schedule for cannabis so that it may be more easily accessible for medical research.

  • Supporting appropriate changes to state laws to increase access to medical cannabis as a treatment option for epilepsy, including pediatric use as supported by a treating physician.

  • Supporting the inclusion of epilepsy as a condition that uses medical cannabis as a treatment option where it is currently available.

  • Supporting research on multiple forms of marijuana and seizures.


HIV - Medical Marijuana Research Papers Worldwide - 2000- 2017


19 Medical Marijuana and Epilepsy

  • Medical cannabis is the whole plant of cannabis used for medical purposes.

  • Phytocannabinoids refer to substances in marijuana that act on cells in the body to cause some effect.

  • The two major ingredients in phytocannabinoids are: d9THC and cannabidiol - CBD.

  • There is evidence that marijuana may be helpful in controlling seizures, especially for difficult to control conditions like Lennox-Gastaut syndrome - LGS-  in children and adults and Dravet syndrome in children.

  • Marijuana has a number of side effects. In open-labeled studies on the use of cannabidiol, side effects included sleepiness, diarrhea, fatigue, and decreased appetite. Cannabinol-CBD also has interactions with some epilepsy medications.

  • A number of states in the US have laws allowing marijuana to be recommended and dispended to people for medical reasons.


20 Cannabinol-CBD for Epilepsy

21 Marijuana Derivative Reduces Seizures in People with Treatment-Resistant Epilepsy


MMJDOCTORONLINE provides Californians with fast, inexpensive medicinal cannabis recommendations and marijuana ID Cards - one-hundred percent online.  Documents are used in State for the purchase of marijuana based medicines at dispensaries, marijuana clubs, cooperatives, delivery services and other points of MMJ access.   



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