Fibromyalgia - Medical Marijuana Research Papers to 2017
Fibromyalgia - The #1 Treatment Choice; Marijuana
62 percent of Fibromyalgia patients who had tried cannabis said it was effective in treating their disease. - Source: An online survey of over 1,300 Fibromyalgia patients conducted by the National Pain Foundation
For many sufferers, cannabis was the only treatment option that helped relieve their symptoms.
More than 80 percent of Fibromyalgia patients experienced relief of sleeplessness when they used cannabis. Overall, cannabis use improved symptoms and increased their sense of well-being.
1 out of every 8 people with Fibromyalgia use cannabis - or cannabinoids - to treat their Fibromyalgia symptoms in Canada.
In a major Canadian study it was found taht more men used cannabis to cope with Fibromyalgia than women. Marijuana users also tended to be young. An incredible 77 percent of the marijuana users in the research effort were unemployed. The scientists suggested two explanations - that cannabis was not improving their ability to function, or that patients* who used cannabis were more severely affected with Fibromyalgia in the first place.
“I was once an active person and have now virtually become a hermit due to FM.”
Another survey found that Fibromyalgia patients used cannabis - smoking or eating - not only to alleviate pain, but for relief of almost all of their other symptoms. The majority of patients* reported significant decreases in pain and stiffness, and increases in relaxation, sleep, and well-being 2 hours after marijuana use. There were also some side effects like dry mouth, dizziness or feeling sedated.
“Having Fibromyalgia is a life sentence. One simply cannot have a productive life living with this disease.” - Beaten Patient
The research indicates that Medical marijuana - CBD and THC may very help relieve the following symptoms associated with Fibromyalgia.
1 Widespread muscle soreness
2 Muscle spasms
4 Headaches - migraines
5 Rebound pain
6 Irritable bowel syndrome
9 Excessive gas
11 Painful bladder syndrome
12 Increased sensitivity to pain
13 Pins and needles sensations
14 Increased overall sensitivity to cold and touch
16 Inability to concentrate, - fibro fog
17 Problems with balance and coordination
19 Increased stress response
20 Sleep disorders
21 Joint stiffness
22 Menstrual pain or changes
24 Nervous energy
26 Emotional sensitivity
FIBROMYALGIA RESEARCH PAPERS - THE DELIVERABLES
1 Medical use of marijuana: experience in California. In: Grotenhermen & Russo - Eds- .marijuana & Cannabinoids: Pharmacology, Toxicology, & Therapeutic Potential. New York: Haworth Press: 153-170,Dale Gieringer.the year of 2001. .
1 Drug marijuana available to the medical user may be assigned to one of two categories. Marijuana - domestic and imported marijuana flowers- is nearly always grown from high-d9THC varieties - which is up to twenty to twenty five percent dry weight in trimmed female bud.....which contains very little Cannabidiol-CBD in these types of strains..
1 Hashish or charas - compressed marijuana resin- is made from varieties that are predominantly d9THC or up to ten percent, but they often contain up to five percent Cannabidiol-CBD. Clean high-d9THC profiles result from cannabis growers making seed selections from individual favorable plants with high d9THC levels.
1 Hashish is produced by bulk processing large numbers of plants, and, therefore, growers are unable to make seed selections from individual, particularly potent plants so the Cannabidiol-CBD level tends to remain at more natural limits. Hashish cultivars are bred for resin quantity rather than potency, so the farmer selects plants and saves seeds by observing which ones produce the most resin, rather than if it contains d9THC or Cannabidiol-CBD.
1 Afghan populations contain approximately twenty five percent plants that are rich in Cannabidiol-CBD with little d9THC, Fifty percent that contain both Cannabidiol-CBD and d9THC, and twenty-five percent that contain little Cannabidiol-CBD and are rich in d9THC. Cannabidiol-CBD is suspected of having effects on the primary psychoactive compound d9THC and in a medical setting it may also have useful modulating effects on d9THC or valuable effects of its own. However, analytical surveys of 80 marijuana varieties in the Netherlands.
1 The year of 1999 - 47 samples in California show that nearly every sample contained predominantly d9THC usually with less than 5 percent of the other combined cannabinoids. Higher levels of d9THC and other medically effective Phyto-cannabinoids and terpenoids are healthier for subjects using smoked marijuana as they may inhale less to achieve the same
dosage and effect.
1 Dutch HortaPharm BV has an ongoing breeding project to develop high-yielding marijuana cultivars with a known phytocannabinoid profile. The aim of the project is to create varieties that produce only a single one of the four major phytocannabinoid compounds - e.g., d9THC, Cannabidiol-CBD, CBC, CBG, or their propyl homologues (unheated acid forms)- as well as selected varieties with predictable mixed phytocannabinoid profiles. Some of these single phytocannabinoid varieties are being commercially exploited by GW Pharmaceuticals Ltd. in England, which began clinical trials in the year of 1999 with whole marijuana extracts.
2 Medical use of marijuana in the Netherlands. Neurology 64: 917-919. Gorter et-althe year of 2005.
2 The authors investigated the indications for marijuana prescription in the Netherlands and assessed its efficacy and side effects. A majority - 64.1 percent- of patients* reported a good or excellent effect on their symptoms. Of these patients, approximately 44 percent used marijuana for ≥5 months. Indications were neurologic disorders, pain, musculoskeletal disorders, and cancer anorexia/cachexia. Inhaled marijuana was perceived as more effective than oral administration. Reported side effects were generally mild.
MMJDoctorOnline Notes: Medical Marijuana ID is still required to purchase any form of cannabis based medicines in California. Thanks to the Medical Board of California, the process of getting a doctor's recommendation for marijuana allowed online. Also, patient information is not kept on any state database, so their privacy is assured. Our online process takes only minutes to complete and patients don't pay until they are approved for a recommendation, Cannabis ID Card, or grower's permit. MMJDoctorOnline rec's are accepted at California dispensaries, delivery services, cannabis clubs, cooperatives and in many locations in Nevada as well.
3 D9-THC based monotherapy in Fibromyalgia patients* on experimentally induced pain, axon reflex flare, & pain relief. Schley et-althe year of 2006. Current Medical Research & Opinion 22: 1269-1276.
3 Objective: Fibromyalgia - FM- is a chronic pain syndrome characterized by a distinct mechanical hyperalgesia and chronic pain. Recently, Phyto-cannabinoids have been demonstrated as providing anti-nociceptive and anti-hyperalgesic effects in animal and human research efforts. Here, we explored in nine FM patients* the efficacy of orally administered delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol - d9THC-
on electrically induced pain, axon reflex flare, and psychometric variables.
3 Research design and methods: Subjects received a daily dose of 2.5–15 milligram of d9THC, with a weekly increase of 2.5milligram, as long as no side effects were reported. Psychometric variables were assessed each week by means of the West Haven-Yale Multidimensional Pain Inventory, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, a Medical outcome survey-short form, the Pain Disability Index , and the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire. In addition, patients* recorded daily, in a diary, their overall pain intensity on a numeric scale. Each week, pain and axon reflex flare was evoked experimentally by administration of high intensity constant current pulses delivered via small surface electrodes,attached to the volar forearm skin.
3 Main outcome measures: Daily pain recordings by the patient, experimentally induced pain, and axon reflex flare by doppler-laser.
3 DATA: Five of nine FM patients* withdrew during the research effort due to adverse side effects. d9THC had no effect on the axon reflex flare,whereas electrically induced pain was significantly attenuated after doses of 10–15 milligram D9-THC. Daily-recorded pain of the FM patients* was significantly reduced.
3 FINDINGS: This pilot research effort demonstrated that a generalized statement that D9-THC is an analgesic drug cannot be made. However, a sub-population of FM patients* reported significant benefit from the d9-THC monotherapy. The unaffected electrically induced axon reflex flare, but decreased pain perception, suggests a central mode of action of the cannabinoid.
4 Nabilone for the treatment of pain in Fibromyalgia. Skrabek et-althe year of 2008. The Journal of Pain 9: 164-173.
4 Nabilone appears to be a beneficial, well-tolerated treatment option for Fibromyalgia patients, with significant benefits in pain relief and functional improvement. To our knowledge, this is the first randomized, controlled trial to assess the benefit of nabilone, a synthetic cannabinoid, on pain reduction and quality of life improvement in patients* with Fibromyalgia. As nabilone improved symptoms and was well-tolerated, it may be a useful adjunct for pain management in Fibromyalgia.
5 The effects of nabilone on sleep in Fibromyalgia: DATA of a randomized controlled trial. Ware et-althe year of 2010. Anesthesia & Analgesia 110: 604-610.
5 HISTORY: Sleep disorders affect many patients* with chronic pain conditions. marijuana has been reported by several patient populations to help sleep. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of nabilone, a synthetic cannabinoid, on sleep disturbance in Fibromyalgia - FM- a disease characterized by widespread chronic pain and insomnia.
5 METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, active-control, equivalence crossover trial to compare nabilone - 0.5-1.0 milligram before bedtime- to amitriptyline - 10-20 milligram before bedtime- in patients* with FM with chronic insomnia. Subjects received each drug for 2 wk with a 2-wk washout period. The primary outcome was sleep quality, measured by the Insomnia Severity Index and the Leeds Sleep Evaluation Questionnaire. Secondary outcomes included pain, mood, quality of life, and adverse events.
5 DATA:Thirty-one patients were enrolled and twenty nine completed the trial. Although sleep was improved by both amitriptyline and nabilone, nabilone was superior to amitriptyline . Nabilone was marginally better on the restfulness but not on wakefulness. No effects on pain, mood, or quality of life were observed. AEs were mostly mild to moderate and were more frequent with nabilone. The most common AEs for nabilone were dizziness, nausea, and dry mouth.
5 FINDINGS: Nabilone is effective in improving sleep in patients* with FM and is well tolerated. Low-dose nabilone given once daily at bedtime may be considered as an alternative to amitriptyline. Longer trials are needed to determine the duration of effect and to characterize long-term safety.
6 Marijuana use in patients* with Fibromyalgia: Effect on symptoms relief & health-related quality of life.Fiz et-althe year of 2011. PLoS One 6.
6 DATA: Twenty-eight FM patients* who were marijuana users and 28 non-users were included in the study. Demographics and clinical variables were similar in both groups. marijuana users referred different duration of drug consumption; the route of administration was smoking - 54 percent- oral - 46 percent- and combined - 43 percent- . The amount and frequency of marijuana use differed among patients.
6 After 2 hours of marijuana use, VAS scores showed a statistically significant - p<0.001- reduction of pain and stiffness, enhancement of relaxation, and an increase in somnolence and feeling of well being. The mental health component summary score of the SF-36 was significantly higher - p<0.05- in marijuana users than in non-users. No significant differences were found in the other SF-36 domains, in the FIQ and the PSQI.
6 FINDINGS: The use of marijuana was associated with beneficial effects on some FM symptoms. Further research efforts on the usefulness of Phyto-cannabinoids in FM patients* as well as phytocannabinoid system involvement in the pathophysiology of this condition are warranted.
7 Phyto-cannabinoid analgesia-pain killer as a potential new therapeutic option in the treatment of chronic pain. Burns & Ineck.the year of 2006. The Annals of Pharmacotherapy 40: 251-260.
7 The discovery of cannabinoid receptors and endogenous ligands for these receptors has led to increased drug development of cannabinoid agonists. New cannabimimetic agents have been associated with fewer systemic adverse effects than delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, including the recent development of marijuana medicinal extracts for sublingual use - approved in Canada- and have had promising findings for analgesia in initial human trials. Several synthetic cannabinoids have also been studied in humans, including cannabinoid agonists available on the international market.
7 FINDINGS: Cannabinoids provide a potential approach to pain management with a novel therapeutic target and mechanism. Chronic pain often requires a polypharmaceutical approach to management, and cannabinoids are a potential addition to the arsenal of treatment options.
8 Analgesia through endogenous cannabinoids. David Secko.the year of 2005. CMAJ 173.
8 The medicinal use of cannabis goes back into history as far as several thousand years, by some accounts. But it was in the 1800s that its potential as an analgesic began to be studied leading eventually to the discovery of D9THC understand how d9THC affects the nervous system, and in the year of 1990 a cannabinoid receptor, CB1, was identified in the brain.
8 The discovery of the CB1 receptor spurred the discovery of endogenous cannabinoids such as anandamide - named after the Sanskrit word for bliss- others quickly followed, including 2-arachidonoylglycerol - 2-AG- . These chemicals - the brain's equivalent of d9THC - are now collectively known as endocannabinoids.
8 Andrea Hohmann and colleagues recently showed the involvement of endocannabinoids in stress-induced analgesia. The authors created an experimental model using rodents, to which they applied painful stimuli involving a non-opioid pathway. After the authors gave the animals rimonabant, a compound that blocks Cannabinoid-CB1 receptors, they observed that the rats no longer exhibited an antinociceptive effect; that is, the animals felt more pain. Moreover, when the rats were made tolerant to the antinociceptive effects of cannabinoids - by treating the animals chronically with a compound that competes with cannabinoids- the rats began to feel pain again.
8 To assess whether endocannabinoids were being released by the brain as a response to pain, the investigators measured levels of anandamide and 2-AG. In the midbrain, 2-AG concentrations increased 2 minutes after a painful stimulus. This increase was followed at 7– 15 minutes by the appearance of anandamide. Anandamide and 2-AG therefore have an apparent role in stress-induced relief of pain.
“The worst thing about having Fibromyalgia is disappointing loved ones when I can’t do things with them,” wrote one Fibromyalgia sufferer.
9 Dose-dependent effects of smoked marijuana on capsaicin-induced pain & hyperalgesia in healthy volunteers. Wallace et-althe year of 2007. Anesthesiology 107:785-96.
9 Although the preclinical literature suggests that the Phyto-cannabinoids produce antinociception and antihyperalgesic effects, the efficacy in the human pain state is unclear due to difficulties in conducting clinical trials with cannabinoids. Experimental pain models have been used to assess the analgesic efficacy in normal volunteers. This research effort sought to evaluate the effects of three doses of smoked marijuana on the pain and cutaneous hyperalgesia induced by intradermal capsaicin in healthy volunteers. A randomized, double-blinded, placebo controlled crossover design methodology was conducted in fifteen healthy volunteers - four women, eleven men..
9 Subjects participated in four sessions where they were exposed to placebo, low, medium, or high dose of marijuana. Capsaicin was injected into opposite forearms five and forty-five minutes after drug exposure and pain, hyperalgesia and side effects were assessed. Five minutes after marijuana exposure, there was no effect on capsaicin induced pain at any dose. However, forty-five minutes after marijuana exposure, there was a significant decrease in capsaicin induced pain with the medium dose and a significant increase in capsaicin induced pain with the higher dose.
9 There was no effect seen with the low dose nor was there an effect on hyperalgesia at any dose. There was a dose dependent increase in the subjective highness score reported after marijuana exposure, which persisted into the late time course. There was no significant difference in the neuropsychological tests before and after marijuana exposure. This research effort suggests that there is a therapeutic window of analgesia-pain killer for smoked marijuana with lower doses decreasing pain and higher doses increasing pain. Further research efforts are required to determine this therapeutic window and time course of analgesia.
10 Synergy between delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and morphine in the arthritic rat. Cox et-althe year of 2007. European Journal of Pharmacology 567: 125 to 130. Lynch & Campbell.the year of 2011. op. cit.
10 We have shown in past isobolographic research efforts that a small amount of - d9THC may enhance morphine antinociception in rodents. However, previous studies of the d9THC/morphine interaction were performed using normal rodents or rats and evaluated acute thermal antinociception. Less is known about phyto cannabinoid and opioid interactions involved in mechanical nociception and in chronic inflammatory pain models, such as Freund's complete adjuvant-induced arthritic model.
10 One fixed-ratio combination was chosen for testing the interaction between d9THC and morphine in the Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritic model. This combination represented a 1:1 ratio of the drugs and thus consisted of equi effective doses, ranging from 0.1 to 5 milligram/kilogram d9THC and from 0.1 to 5 milligram/kilogram morphine. The combination ED50 - effective dose - 50% value - for the fixed ratios in relation to the ED50 - effective dose 50% value of the drugs alone was determined. The isobolographic analysis indicated a synergistic interaction between d9THC and morphine in both the non-arthritic and the arthritic rodents.
10 Since Freund's adjuvant-induced alteration in endogenous opioid tone has been previously shown, our data indicate that such changes did not preclude the use of d9THC and morphine in combination. As with acute preclinical pain models in which the d9THC/morphine combination findings in less tolerance development.... the implication of the research effort for chronic pain conditions is discussed.
11 Clinical cannabinoid - body's own, deficiency - CECD- : May this concept explain therapeutic benefits of marijuana in migraine, Fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome & other treatment-resistant conditions? Ethan Russo.the year of 2004. Neuroendocrinology Letters twenty five: 31 to 39.
11 Migraine conditions are directly related to endocannabinoids - the body's own .... where Anandamide - AEA- potentiates 5-HT1A and inhibits 5-HT2A receptors supporting therapeutic efficacy in acute and preventive migraine treatment. Cannabinoids also demonstrate dopamine-blocking and anti-inflammatory effects. AEA is tonically active in the periaqueductal gray matter, a migraine generator. d9THC modulates glutamatergic neurotransmission via NMDA receptors.
11 Fibromyalgia is now conceived as a central sensitization state with secondary hyperalgesia. Cannabinoids have similarly demonstrated the ability to block spinal, peripheral and gastrointestinal mechanisms that promote pain in headache, Fibromyalgia, IBS and related disorders. The past and potential clinical utility of marijuana-based medicines in their treatment is discussed, as are further suggestions for experimental investigation of CECD via CSF examination and neuroimaging.
11 CONCLUSION: Migraine, Fibromyalgia, IBS and related conditions display common clinical, biochemical and pathophysiological patterns that suggest an underlying clinical endocannabinoid - body's own, deficiency that may be suitably treated with phytocannabinoid medicines.
12 Clinical endocannabinoid deficiency - CECD- revisited: may this concept explain the therapeutic benefits of marijuana in migraine, Fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome & other treatment-resistant conditions? Smith & Wagner.the year of 2014. Neuro Endocrinology Letters 35: 198 to 201.
12 A review of the literature indicates that significant progress has been made since Dr. Ethan B. Russo's landmark paper, just ten years ago. Investigation at that time suggested that Phyto-cannabinoids may block spinal, peripheral and gastrointestinal mechanisms that promote pain in headache, Fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome and muscle spasm.
12 Subsequent research has confirmed that underlying cannabinoid - body's own, deficiencies indeed play a role in migraine, Fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome and a growing list of other medical conditions. Clinical experience is bearing this out. Further research and especially, clinical trials will further demonstrate the usefulness of medical marijuana. As legal barriers fall and scientific bias fades this will become more apparent.
13 Survey of Australians using marijuana for medical purposes. Harm Reduction Journal 4: 2-18, Swift et-althe year of the year of 2005.
13 Protocol: Australian adults who had used marijuana for medical purposes were recruited using media stories. A total of 147 respondents were screened by phone and anonymous questionnaires were mailed, to be returned by postage paid envelope.
13 DATA: Data was available for 128 participants. Long term and regular medical marijuana use were frequently reported for multiple medical conditions including chronic pain - 57 percent- depression - 56 percent- arthritis - 35 percent- persistent nausea - 27 percent- and weight loss - 26 percent- . marijuana was perceived to provide "great relief" overall - 86 percent- and substantial relief of specific symptoms such as pain, nausea and insomnia.
13 It was also typically perceived as superior to other medications in terms of undesirable effects, and the extent of relief provided. However, nearly one half - 41 percent- experienced conditions or symptoms that were not helped by its use. The most prevalent concerns related to its illegality. Participants reported strong support for their use from clinicians and family. There was almost universal interest - 89 percent- in participating in a clinical trial of medical marijuana, and strong support - 79 percent- for investigating alternative delivery methods.
13 Conclusion: Australian medical marijuana users are risking legal ramifications, but consistent with users elsewhere, claim moderate to substantial benefits from its use in the management of their medical condition. In addition to strong public support, medical marijuana users show strong interest in clinical marijuana research, including the investigation of alternative delivery methods.
14 NEED TO KNOW - CBD OIL AND FIBROMYALGIA - RECOMMENDED
That is one of the surprise findings in an online survey of over 1,300 Fibromyalgia patients* conducted by the National Pain Foundation and National Pain Report.
Four out of ten - 43 percent- Fibromyalgia patients feel their doctor is not knowledgeable about the disorder. Over a third - 35 percent- feel their doctor does not take their Fibromyalgia seriously.
45 percent feel their family and friends do not take their Fibromyalgia seriously.
Nearly half - 49 percent- said their Fibromyalgia symptoms began at a relatively young age - 18-34 .
Only 11 percent were diagnosed with Fibromyalgia within the first year of symptoms.
44 percent said it took five or more years before they were diagnosed with Fibromyalgia.
Many survey respondents lamented that the disorder had taken over their lives, leaving them socially isolated, fatigued and in constant pain.
Important Points About Cannabidiol-CBD Oil and Fibromyalgia
Important Point #1: Cannabidiol-CBD is one of 85 chemical compounds known as Phyto-cannabinoids that are all found in the marijuana plant. Cannabidiol-CBD may be extracted in oil form from either cannabis or hemp, both of which belong to the marijuana genus. Cannabidiol-CBD oil from cannabis is still illegal in most states where it is a Schedule I drug. Conversely, Cannabidiol-CBD oil from hemp is currently legal in all 50 states since it is extracted from hemp - no THC- and not cannabis.
Important Point #2: Cannabidiol-CBD products will not get you high. d9THC is the psychoactive ingredient in cannabis that produces effects such as feeling “high” or feeling anxious or paranoid. Cannabidiol-CBD is non-psychoactive, so won’t get you high and research efforts have suggested that Cannabidiol-CBD actually counteracts the anxiety or paranoia that may be caused by d9THC. Since Cannabidiol-CBD hemp oil products have no or only a trace amount of d9THC, it’s unlikely - but not impossible- that a person using them would test positive for d9THC in a standard drug test.
Important Point #3: Cannabidiol-CBD products come in several different forms, including drops - tinctures- capsules, vape oils, gummies and topical creams. Based on the feedback that we’ve received from community members, the drops are the most popular with capsules being the second most popular.