HIV MARIJUANA RESEARCH PAPERS
HIV - Medical Marijuana Research Papers Worldwide - 2000- 2017
RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS - CANNABIS HEALS CELL WALLS TO BLOCK VIRUS
"The CB2 receptor controls many body, immune and neurological functions. Cannabinoids have been shown to modulate this receptor in a manner that hinders the propagation of the HIV virus. It is suggested that practical and experimental therapy should focus on this finding "
"When THC is introduced into this environment, it activates the CB2 receptors in the intestines to build new, healthy bacterial cells that block the virus from leaking through the cell walls. In so many words, the body works hard to keep bad things in the intestines and the good things out. HIV kills the cells that protect the walls - THC brings them back. Reducing the amount of the virus in the lower intestines could then help keep uninfected people uninfected."
"Given that cannabinoids of marijuana have been shown to block HIV from entering cells, therapy combinations of THC, CBD, THCV and other phyto-cannabinoids in cell cultures, animal and human studies is in order, to find the most effective form of cannabis based medicines for AIDS and other disorders."
"The changes that d9THC and other phyto-cannabinoids - produces in the gut - a process formally known as “microbial translocation,” isn’t as complicated as it sounds. During HIV infection, one of the earliest effects is that the virus spreads rapidly throughout the body and kills a significant part of cells in the gut and intestine. This activity damages the gut in a way that allows the HIV to leak through the cell wall of the intestines and into the bloodstream."
1 MARIJUANA USERS REPORT 90% PLUS IMPROVEMENT IN ALMOST ALL SYMPTOMS
1 Cannabis consumption in HIV for pain & other medical symptoms. Journal of Pain Symptom Management 29: 358 to 367.Woolridge et-al 2005.
1 Despite the huge benefits of antiretroviral therapy on survival during HIV infection, there is an increasing need to manage symptoms and side effects during long-term drug therapy. Cannabis has been found anecdotally as being beneficial for a number of typical symptoms and complications in HIV infections, for example, poor appetite and neuropathy.
1 This study aimed to investigate symptom and condition management with marijuana. HIV-positive individuals attending a large clinic were recruited into an anonymous cross-sectional questionnaire study. Up to one-third -27 percent, 143/523 found using marijuana for treating symptoms. Patients found improved appetite -97 percent, muscle pain -94 percent, nausea -93 percent, anxiety -93 percent, nerve pain -90 percent, depression -86 percent, and paresthesia -85 percent.
1 Many marijuana consumers -47 percent were found to be associated memory deterioration. Symptom control using marijuana is widespread in human immunodeficiency virus - HIV outpatients. A large number of HIV patients stated that marijuana improved symptom control.
2 ONE QUARTER OF AIDS PATIENTS SMOKE MARIJUANA - MORE STUDY SUGGESTED
2. Patterns of cannabis consumption among patients with HIV/AIDS followed in a public health care setting. Prentiss et-al 2004 Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 35: 38 to 45.
2 Aim of Study: To look deeply into the prevalence and patterns of smoked cannabis and perceived benefits and to assess demographic and clinical factors associated with cannabis employment among human immunodeficiency virus - HIV patients in a public health care setting.
2 Protocol: 252 Subjects were recruited via consecutive sampling in public health care clinics. Structured interviews assessed patterns of recent cannabis consumption, including its perceived benefit for symptom relief. Associations between cannabis employment and demographic and clinical variables were studied using univariate (single) and univariate (many) regression (fit to straight line) analyses.
2 Findings: Overall prevalence of smoked cannabis in the previous month was 23 percent. Reported benefits included relief of anxiety and/or depression with: -57 percent, improved appetite -53 percent, increased pleasure -33 percent, and relief of pain -28 percent. Recent employment of cannabis was positively associated with severe nausea and recent consumption of alcohol and negatively associated with being Latino. No correlations between cannabis consumption and pain symptoms were observed.
2 Up-shot: The findings suggest that providers be advised to assess routinely and better understand patients' “indications” for self-dosing of marijuana. Given the estimated prevalence, more formal characterization of the patterns and impact of marijuana consumption to alleviate HIV-associated symptoms are warranted.
3 AIDS PATIENTS SELF MEDICATE WITH CANNABIS TO MANAGE SIDE EFFECTS OF PHARMACEUTICALS AND GASTROINTESTINAL ISSUES
3 Mary-Jane & her patients: sociodemographic & clinical characteristics of HIV-positive individuals using medical cannabis & antiretroviral agents. Braitstein et-al 2001. AIDS 12: 532 to 533.
3 Number one - There are several implications to our findings. This is among the first trials and experiments to determine a prevalence rate for the consumption of medical cannabis among HIV-positive individuals, and suggests that medical cannabis is widely employed in this community.
3 Number two - Our data strongly suggest that individuals in this cohort are using cannabis to manage pharmaceutical side-effects, and in particular gastrointestinal symptoms and peripheral neuropathy. Although it has been stated elsewhere that individuals consumption cannabis as a pain management strategy , it has not yet been stated that HIV-positive individuals consumption cannabis to manage peripheral neuropathy. There is evidence of a plausible biological mechanism in this regard.
3 Number three - Cannabis consumers report greater food and hunger insecurity. This suggests that poverty may be an important limiting factor in the ability of individuals to manage side-effects and symptoms appropriately. The mechanism of how this phenomenon functions needs to be better elucidated; however, these data suggest that cannabis consumers do not have enough to eat.
3 There are limitations to this study. First, our study population may not be representative of all program participants on antiretroviral agents. In particular, we found that individuals in our study were older, more likely to be men, to have AIDS at baseline, and had a higher CD4 cell count than other participants in the program who did not respond to the participant survey.
3 Second, there is no adequate control group. It is known that among HIV-negative gay and bisexual men under the age of 30 years in Vancouver, Canada, 60–70 percent report using cannabis for recreational purposes, suggesting that individuals in our cohort reporting medical cannabis consumption are not using it recreationally.
3 In summary, our data indicate that among HIV-positive individuals on anti-human immunodeficiency virus - HIV medications in British Columbia, approximately 15 percent are using cannabis for medical purposes. These individuals are more likely to be men, younger, experiencing side-effects, and experiencing issues of hunger as a consequence of poverty.
4 MARIJUANA SELF MEDICATION USED FOR STRESS AND TO IMPROVE APPETITE
4 Cannabis consumption by persons living with HIV/AIDS: patterns and prevalence of use. Ware et-al 2003. Journal of Cannabis Therapeutics 3: 3 to 15.
4 This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of use, reasons for use, amounts and methods employed, and perceived effectiveness of marijuana and dronabinol (synthetic d9THC) among persons living with HIV/AIDS in Canada.
4 Cross-sectional anonymous self-administered questionnaire study. Four hundred patients were consecutively recruited from 3 primary care - human immunodeficiency virus - HIV clinics in Toronto, Ottawa and Montreal, and 50 questionnaires were distributed to PHAs -persons having AIDS at one “marijuana compassion club.”
4 Responses were received from 160 clinic patients and 19 compassion club patients . Of 160 PHAs attending the human immunodeficiency virus - HIV clinics, 59 patients stated current consumption of marijuana. Of 19 compassion club clients, all stated current consumption of marijuana. Cannabis was most typically employed for stress relief and loss of appetite in both populations, in addition to relief of stress and nausea. Side effects included “high” and dry mouth. Dronabinol and marijuana were also stated to relieve adverse effects of antiretroviral therapy. Dronabinol is less widely employed, marijuana being preferred.
4 Cannabis is typically employed among PHAs for a wide range of symptom and condition relief. Clinical trials using standardized material are required to assess the magnitude of the effects of marijuana, to explore the role of the placebo (fake drug) effect, and to define dose exposures for risk-benefit assessment.
5 ONE THIRD OF AIDS PATIENTS USE MARIJUANA TO TREAT SYMPTOMS OF AIDS
5 Barriers to access to medical marijuana for Canadians living with HIV/AIDS. Belle-Isle & Hathaway. 2007.AIDS Care 19: 500 to 506.
5 North American trials and experiments suggest that as many as one-third of people living with HIV/AIDS, self-medicate with marijuana for relief of physical and stress-related symptoms. Although marijuana remains a controlled substance in Canada, legal access has been granted to people with HIV/AIDS and other serious illness under the Marihuana Medical Access Regulations -MMAR since 2001. Several years into the programme, however, few Canadians have obtained MMAR approval, suggesting that substantial obstacles remain.
5 This paper reports findings from a 2005 survey -197 participants and focus groups conducted to identify barriers to access to medical marijuana among people living with HIV/AIDS. Most - 86 percent respondents who stated using marijuana as medicine - continue to rely on illegal sources for their supply. They cited lack of information, product quality concerns, and an onerous, confusing application process among other problems mentioned with the MMAR. The findings are discussed in terms of policy suggestions for facilitating access to a legal source of marijuana for medical consumers.
6 MARIJUANA MIGHT WORK WELL IN COMBINATION WITH PHARMACEUTICALS
6 Marijuana consumption & its association with adherence to antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected persons with moderate to severe nausea. de Jong et-al 2005. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 38: 43 to 46.
6 Adherence (follow strictly) to antiretroviral therapy -ART is essential to successful treatment of human immunodeficiency virus - HIV infection. Two recent trials and experiments stated a negative correlation between cannabis consumption and adherence to ART. Some patients, however, report that smoking cannabis improves adherence to ART. This study, therefore sought to identify which subgroups of HIV patients may have differential adherence to ART in association with recent cannabis use.
6 These data suggest that medicinal consumption of cannabis may facilitate (work with), rather than impede, ART adherence for HIV patients with nausea, in contrast to the consumption of other illicit substances, which were associated with lower rates of ART adherence. To demonstrate any causal relationship between cannabis and adherence would require a longitudinal or controlled study.
7 MARIJUANA CONSUMPTION IS NOT BAD FOR T CELLS - IMMUNE SYSTEM
7 Recreational drug consumption & T lymphocyte subpopulations in HIV-uninfected & HIV-infected men. Chao et-al 2008. Drug & Alcohol Dependence 94:165 to 171.
7 The effects of recreational drugs on CD4 and CD8 T cells in humans are not well understood. We conducted a longitudinal analysis of men who have sex with men -MSM enrolled in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study -MACS to define correlations between self-reported consumption of cannabis, cocaine, poppers and amphetamines, and CD4 and CD8 T cell parameters in both HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected MSM. For the HIV-infected MSM, we employed clinical and laboratory data collected semiannually before 1996 to avoid potential effects of antiretroviral treatment.
7 Potential confounders adjusted for included length of follow-up, demographics, tobacco smoking, alcohol use, risky sexual behaviors, history of sexually transmitted infections, and antiviral therapy. We found no clinically meaningful correlations between consumption of cannabis, cocaine, poppers, or amphetamines and CD4 and CD8 T cell counts, percentages, or rates of change in either HIV-uninfected or -infected men.
7 The regression (fit to straight line) coefficients were of minimum magnitude despite some reaching statistical significance. No threshold effect was detected for frequent -at least weekly or continuous substance consumption during the previous year. These results indicate that consumption of these substances does not adversely affect the numbers and percentages of circulating CD4 or CD8 T cells in either HIV-uninfected or -infected MSM.
8 CANNABIS SHOWS USEFUL ANTIBACTERIAL PROPERTIES IN AIDS
8 Effects of medicinal marijuana on CD4 immunity in AIDS. Rachel Schrier. 2010. In: University of San Diego Health Sciences, Center for Medicinal Cannabis Research. Report to the Legislature & Governor of the State of California presenting findings pursuant to SB 847 which created the CMCR & provided state funding. op. cit.
8 However, if marijuana allows human immunodeficiency virus - HIV infected patients to better tolerate antiretroviral treatment -which increases CD4 number, reverses wasting, and avoid consumption of opiates, then it could have an overall beneficial effect. My laboratory has been examining lymphoproliferative responses in human immunodeficiency virus - HIV infected cohorts and has shown an association of positive responses to CMV and Mycobacterium with resistance to disease caused by these agents.
9 MARIJUANA IS A SAFE "DRUG" IN AIDS
9 Short-term effects of phyto-cannabinoids in patients with HIV-1 infection: a randomized, placebo (fake drug)-controlled clinical trial. Abrams et-al2003. Annals of Internal Medicine 139: 258 to 266.
9 62 study participants were eligible for the primary end point -cannabis group, 20 HIV patients; dronabinol (synthetic d9THC) group, 22 HIV patients; and placebo (fake drug) group, 20 HIV patients. Baseline human immunodeficiency virus - HIV RNA level was less than 50 copies/mL for 36 participants -58 percent, and the median CD4+ cell count was 340 109 cells/L.
9 The adjusted average changes in viral load in cannabis and dronabinol relative to placebo (fake drug) were 15 percent and 8 percent, respectively. Neither CD4+ nor CD8+ cell counts appeared to be adversely affected by the phyto-cannabinoids.
9 Smoked and oral phyto-cannabinoids did not seem to be unsafe in people with human immunodeficiency virus - HIV infection with respect to HIV RNA amounts, CD4+ and CD8+ cell counts, or protease inhibitor amounts over a 21-day treatment.
10 CANNABIS USERS HAVE HIGHER T-CELL COUNTS - USE IT WELL WITH OTHER MEDICATIONS
10 Marijuana as therapy for people living with HIV/AIDS: social & health aspects Fogarty et-al 2007.19: 295 to 301.
10 Therapeutic consumption of cannabis has emerged as an important issue for people living with cancer, HIV/AIDS and multiple sclerosis. This paper looks into the therapeutic consumption of cannabis in the Positive Health cohort study, a longitudinal cohort study of men and women living with HIV/AIDS in NSW and Victoria, Australia. Factors that distinguish therapeutic consumption of cannabis from recreational consumption were assessed by comparisons on a range of social and health-related variables.
10 The results show that among 408 participants, 59.8 percent stated some consumption of cannabis in the past six months. Of those participants 244 found recreational consumption only of cannabis and 44.3 percent report mixed consumption of cannabis for therapeutic and recreational purposes.
10 Univariate (many) regression (fit to straight line) analysis showed that participants who consumed cannabis for therapeutic purposes were noticeably more likely than recreational-only consumers to have used other complementary or alternative therapies, experienced HIV/AIDS-related illness or other illnesses in the past 12 months, had higher CD4/T-cell counts, had lower incomes, be younger in age and less likely to have had a casual partner in the six months prior to interview.
10 These results show that a substantial proportion of people living with HIV/AIDS -PLWHA consumption cannabis for therapeutic purposes, despite considerable legal barriers, suggesting cannabis represents another option in their health management. Rather than solely using cannabis in response to illness, the experience of illness may influence a person's understanding of their cannabis use, so that they come to understand it as therapeutic.
10 Further research might consider possible interactions between phyto-cannabinoids and antiretroviral treatments, potential employment of oral THC and the difficulties faced by clinicians and PLWHA in discussing cannabis in the current legal context.
11 SYNTHETIC AND ORGANIC THC IMPROVE APPETITE, OTHER SYMPTOMS IN AIDS
11 Dronabinol & cannabis in HIV-positive cannabis smokers: caloric intake, mood & sleep. Haney et-al 2007. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 45: 545 to 554.
11 Ten HIV-positive cannabis smokers completed two 16-day inpatient phases. Each dronabinol (synthetic d9THC) -5 and 10 milligram and cannabis -2.0 percent and 3.9 percent d9THC dose was administered 4 times daily for 4 days, but only 1 drug was active per day, thereby maintaining double-blind dosing. Four days of placebo (fake drug) washout separated each active cannabinoid condition.
11 Findings: As compared with placebo (fake drug), cannabis and dronabinol (synthetic d9THC) dose dependently increased daily caloric intake and body weight in HIV-positive cannabis smokers. All cannabinoid conditions produced significant intoxication, except for low-dose dronabinol (synthetic d9THC) -5 milligram; the intoxication was rated positively -eg, “good drug effect” with little evidence of discomfort and no impairment of cognitive performance. Effects of cannabis and dronabinol (synthetic d9THC) were comparable, except that only cannabis -3.9 percent d9THC improved ratings of sleep.
11 Up-shot: These data suggest that for HIV-positive cannabis smokers, both dronabinol (synthetic d9THC) -at doses 8 times current recommendations and cannabis were well tolerated and produced substantial and comparable increases in food intake.
12 MARIJUANA BOOSTS APPETITE HORMONES - COULD WORK WELL WITH OTHER DRUGS
12 Most recently, marijuana inhalation was demonstrated - in clinicals and trials - to be associated with increased amounts of appetite hormones in the blood of subjects with human immunodeficiency virus - 12 HIV infection.In animal-rodent models, d9-THC dosing is associated with decreased mortality and ameliorated disease progression.”In preclinical models,phyto-cannabinoids have also been shown to decrease human immunodeficiency virus - HIV replication.
12 Some experts now believe that “cannabis represents another treatment option in [the] health management” of HIV patients with HIV/AIDS and that phyto-cannabinoids “could potentially be used in tandem with existing antiretroviral drugs, opening the door to the generation of new drug therapies for HIV/AIDS.”
13 MARIJUANA WORKS TO IMPROVE APPETITE - INDEPENDENT OF BLOOD SUGAR ISSUES
13 A pilot study of the effects of marijuana on appetite hormones in human immunodeficiency virus - HIV to infected adult men.Riggs et-al 2012. Brain Research 1431: 46-52.
13 Rationale: The endocannabinoid system is under active investigation as a pharmacological
target for obesity management due to its role in appetite regulation and metabolism.
Exogenous Phyto-cannabinoids such as tetrahydrocannabinol -THC stimulate appetite and food
intake. However, there are no controlled observations directly linking THC to changes of most of the appetite hormones.
13 Aim of Study: We took the opportunity afforded by a placebo (fake drug)-controlled trial of smoked medicinal marijuana for HIV-associated neuropathic pain to evaluate the effects of THC on the appetite
hormones ghrelin, leptin and PYY, as well as on insulin.
13 Protocol: In this double-blind crossover study, each subject was exposed to both active marijuana
-THC and placebo (fake drug).
13 Findings: Compared to placebo (fake drug), marijuana dosing was associated with significant
increases in plasma amounts of ghrelin and leptin, and decreases in PYY, but did not noticeably influence insulin amounts.
13 Conclusion: These findings are consistent with modulation of appetite hormones mediated
through endogenous (body's own) cannabinoid receptors, independent of glucose metabolism.
14 CANNABIS BALANCES - DIALS UP APPETITE HORMONES
14 Cannabinoid dosing attenuates (dialed down) the progression of simian immunodeficiency virus.Molina et-al 2011. AIDS Research & Human Retroviruses 27: 585 to 592.
14 We took the opportunity afforded by a placebo (fake drug)-controlled trial of smoked medicinal marijuana for HIV-associated neuropathic pain to evaluate the effects of THC on the appetite hormones ghrelin, leptin and PYY, as well as on insulin. In this double-blind crossover study, each subject was exposed to both active marijuana -THC and placebo (fake drug).
14 Compared to placebo (fake drug), marijuana dosing was associated with significant increases in plasma amounts of ghrelin (hormone that regulates appetite) and leptin, and decreases in PYY, but did not noticeably influence insulin amounts.
14 These findings are consistent with modulation of appetite hormones mediated through endogenous (body's own) cannabinoid receptors, independent of glucose metabolism.
15 CANNABIS AFFECTS CELL RECEPTORS THAT DIAL DOWN HIV INFECTION - THERAPY OPTIONS SUGGESTED
15 Attenuation of HIV-1 replication in macrophages by cannabinoid receptor 2 agonists.Ramirez et-al 2013. Journal of Leukocyte Biology 93: 801 to 810:.
15 Findings from a single-round infection with the pseudotyped virus revealed a marked decrease in HIV-1 LTR activation by the CB2 ligands. Together, these results indicate that CB2 may offer a means to limit HIV-1 infection in macrophages.
16 EXCITING NEWS - CANNABIS MIGHT HELP KILL HIV WITH PHARMACEUTICALS
16 Temple scientists weaken human immunodeficiency virus - HIV infection in immune cells using synthetic agents. Fogarty et-al 2007. op. cit. May 1, 2013.
16 The scientists landed on their discovery by conducting a series of experiments in a well-established, non-clinical human immunodeficiency virus - HIV macrophage cell model. They began by treating the HIV-infected cells with one of three different synthetic CB2-activating compounds.
16 The cells were then sampled periodically to measure the activity of an enzyme called reverse transcriptase, which is essential for human immunodeficiency virus - HIV replication. After seven days, the team found that all three compounds had successfully attenuated (dialed down) human immunodeficiency virus - HIV replication. The experiments and findings are detailed in the May issue of the Journal of Leukocyte Biology.
16 The results suggest that selective CB2 agonists (dials-up activity) could potentially be employed in tandem with existing antiretroviral drugs, opening the door to the generation of new drug therapies for HIV/AIDS. The data also support the idea that the human immune system could be leveraged to fight human immunodeficiency virus - HIV infection.
16 "Our study suggests that the body's own natural defenses can be made more powerful to fight some of the worst symptoms of HIV," noting that stimulating CB2 receptors in white blood cells could produce similar benefits against other viral infections.
MMJDOCTORONLINE NOTES: New and old medical marijuana patients can apply here for a licensed doctor's recommendation, cultivation permit or Cannabis ID Card. The process is 100% online, and takes only a few minutes. Patients don't pay unless they are approved. Documents are used at delivery services, cannabis clubs, dispensaries, cooperatives, compassion clubs and other points of access in California and some places in Nevada.
In 2018, medical marijuana patients will pay about 35% less - or about $80 per ounce less than recreational users.