HUNTINGTON'S DISEASE - 22 MARIJUANA RESEARCH REPORTS
Team G Genetics - Wiki
"Cannabis Cannabinoids, THC & CBD slow or even haults neurogeneration as seen in Huntington's Disease. This is the overwhelming consensus of the twenty two research papers and clinical trials presented here." - Huntington's Disease - Medical Marijuana Research Papers Worldwide - 2000- 2017
THC, CBD BOTH EFFECTIVE IN TREATING NERVE DEGENERATION
1 Researchers have shown that cannabis helps to slow the progression of Huntington’s disease through an interaction with the body's own endocannabinoid system. Once studies determined that Huntington’s disease was related to a loss of cannabinoid receptors in the brain, the basal ganglia, researchers aimed to examine whether or not increasing endocannabinoid activity would be therapeutically beneficial in treating the Huntington's disease. Results are encouraging.
1 In preclinical trials conducted, the major cannabinoids found in cannabis, which are primarily tetrahydrocannabinol -THC and cannabidiol -CBD .....have been shown to be very effective at protecting neurons in the brain. Researchers have shown that by activating cannabinoid 2 receptors - CB2.... inflammation and toxicity of microglial cells is reduced, which slows the neurodegeneration process seen in Huntington’s disease. Through this activation of cannabinoid 1 receptors -CB1, cannabinoids were shown to effectively alleviate the specific motor symptoms, the tremors and other movement disorders and to reduce the process where neurons are damaged and are killed ... and this cannabinoid intervention slows the progression of the disease
1 Other studies examining the effect of cannabis-based medications on Huntington’s disease have shown cannabinoids effective at delaying the progression of the disorder,
CANNABIS CBD VERY PROMISING IN THE TREATMENT OF HUNTINGTON'S
2 Cannabidiol-a promising drug for neurodegenerative disorders? Iuvone et-al 2009. CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics 15- 65 to 75.
2 Since, at present, there are a lack of therapies for a wide range of neurodegenerative diseases, doctors and scientists search for new therapeutic approaches. Early treatment and strategies toward neuroprotective and antiinflammatory disorders are particularly desirable because isolated treatments are not effective, nor can they be effective. Recently marijuana and its derivatives have attracted much interest, although these compounds historically raise practical and ethical problems due to the perception of potential abuse. Never the less, Cannabis compounds, particualry cannabidiol-CBD, which lacks any unwanted psychactive effects, could represent a very promising agent of very high prospect for therapeutic use.
SYNTHETIC THC TRIAL INDICATES PROMISE IN HUNTINGTON'S
3 Cannabinoids-Novel Medicines for the Treatment of Huntington's Disease. Sagredo et-al 2012. Recent Patents on CNS Drug Discovery 7-41 to 48.
3 Phyto-cannabinoids (from marijuana) have been studied for alleviation of hyperkinetic symptoms, given their inhibitory effects on movement, and, in particular, as disease-modifying agents due to their anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective and neuroregenerative properties.
3 This potential has been corroborated in various experimental models of Huntington's - HD and using various types of cannabinoid agonists, including the phytocannabinoids present in Sativex- synthetic d9-THC, and we are close to initiate a clinical trial with this cannabis-based medicine to evaluate its capability as a disease-modifying agent in a population of Huntington's - HD patients. The present review will address all preclinical evidence supporting the potential of Sativex- synthetic d9-THC for the treatment of disease progression in Huntington's - HD patients. The article presents some promising patents on the cannabinoids.
POSITIVE RESULTS WITH CBD & THC - URGENT RESEARCH REQUIRED
4 Neuroprotective effects of phytocannabinoid-based medicines in experimental models of Huntington's disease. Sagredo et-al 2011. Journal of Neuroscience Research 89-1509 to 1518.
4 Responses were generally found with other combinations of d9THC- and Cannabidiol-CBD-enriched botanical extracts, suggesting that these effects are most likely related to the antioxidant and Cannabinoid-CB(1) and Cannabinoid-CB(2) receptor-independent properties of both phytocannabinoids. In fact, selective antagonists for both receptor types,example;... SR-141716 and AM-630, respectively, were unable to prevent the positive effects on calpain expression caused in 3-NP-intoxicated rats by the 1 to 1 combination of d9THC and Cannabidiol-CBD.
4 And finally, this combination also reversed the up-regulation of proinflammatory markers including inducible nitric oxide synthase, as observed in malonate-lesioned rats. In conclusion, this investigation provides preclinical evidence in support of a beneficial effect of the cannabis-based medicine Sativex- synthetic d9-THC as a neuroprotective agent capable of delaying disease progression in Huntington's - HD, a disorder that is currently poorly managed in the clinic, prompting an urgent need for clinical trials with agents showing positive results in preclinical studies.
STRONG EVIDENCE THAT CANNABIS CANNABINOIDS HELP MOST SYMPTOMS OF HUNTINGTON'S
5 Spasticity is chronic muscle tightness. It causes the muscles to become stiff and hard to the touch. Spasticity also can cause pain and painful muscle spasms. These occur when the muscle contracts (tightens) uncontrollably.
5 Evidence Supporting Use. There is strong evidence* that Oral cannabis extract - Oral cannabis extract - OCE pills made from pure Cannabidiol-CBD:
Can help lessen patients’ reported spasticity symptoms short-term
Moderate evidence shows that d9THC pills and oral spray
most likely helps lessen patients’ reported symptoms of spasticity short-term
most likely helps lessen cramp-like pain or painful spasms
Some evidence that Oral cannabis extract - Oral cannabis extract - OCE pills and d9THC pills
Could help lessen patients’ reported spasticity symptoms if treatment is continued for at least one year
Could lead to improvement on lab tests for spasticity a doctor performs, but only if treatment is continued for at least one year
Evidence Against Usage
There is moderate evidence that Oral cannabis extract - Oral cannabis extract - OCE pills, d9THC pills, and oral spray
most likely do not lead to improvement short-term on lab tests for spasticity a doctor performs
6 MODERATE SMOKING OF CANNABIS - DOES NOT HARM LUNGS
6 Although heavy smoking of marijuana most likely has adverse respiratory effects, a twenty-year longitudinal investigation of marijuana smokers using the equivalent of a joint per day for up to seven years - and this did not demonstrate any decline in lung function, as was seen in cigarette smokers; rather, lung function values remained normal or paradoxically improved.
Editor's note: There is no paradox that cannabis users experienced an increase in lung capacity. It is a bronchodilator and an anti inflammatory. Additionally, the act of deep inhalation is a cardiovascular exercise. Finally, cannabis components have anti-cancer activity which explains why the carcinogenic components of combustion have no statistically harmful effect.
REGENERATION OF NERVES IS RARE - CAN MARIJUANA HELP?
7 Although the brain and spinal cord are surrounded by tough membranes, enclosed in the bones of the skull and spinal vertebrae, and chemically isolated by the so-called blood-brain barrier, they are very susceptible if compromised.
7 Peripheral nerves tend to lie deep beneath the skin, but are still somewhat exposed to damage. And individual neurons, which are the building blocks of the nervous system, and their neural networks are susceptible to disruption to electrochemical and structural integrity. While neuroregeneration can occur in the peripheral nervous system, it is believed to be rare in brain and spinal cord tissue.
7 The specific causes vary by disorder and sometimes by individual case, but it can include genetic disorders; congenital defects or disorders; infections; lifestyle - environmental health problems which include malnutrition; and brain trauma, spinal cord injury or nerve insult. The issue may start in another body system or part that interacts with the central nervous system; example, cerebrovascular disorders involve brain injury due to issues with the blood vessels that supply the brain, and autoimmune disorders which involve carnage caused by the body’s rogue immune system.
CANNABIS WAS NOT TOXIC - NO CONCLUSION ABOUT EFFECTIVENESS
8 Controlled clinical trial of cannabidiol-CBD in Huntington's Disease. Consroe et-al 1991 - Pharmacology, Biochemistry, & Behavior 40-701 to 708.
8 Clinical laboratory tests and other safety outcome variables, indicated no significant or clinically important differences. Correspondingly, plasma levels of Cannabidiol-CBD were tested by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry, and the weekly levels did not vary decidedly over the six weeks of Cannabidiol-CBD administration. In conclusion, Cannabidiol-CBD, at an average daily dose of approximately seven hundred milligrams per day for six weeks, was either symptomatically effective nor toxic, relative to placebo, in neuroleptic-free patients with Huntington's - HD.
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9 The altered Cannabinoid-B1 receptor and endocannabinoid levels precede motor symptom onset in a transgenic mouse model of Huntington’s disease. Neuroscience, 163-1, 456-65. Dowie, M.J - Bradshaw, H.B - Howard, M.L - Nicholson, L.F - Faull, R.L - Hannan, A.J - and Glass, M. - 2009, September . Collected from:http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S030645220901001X.
10 The endocannabinoid system as a target for the treatment of motor dysfunction. British Journal of Pharmacology, 156-7, 1029–1040. Fernández-Ruiz, J. - 2009 . Collected from:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2697699/.
11 The role of Cannabinoid-2 receptors in neuroprotective effects of Phyto-cannabinoids (from marijuana). Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, 286 1-2 Suppl 1 : S91-6. Fernández-Ruiz, J - Pazos, M.R - García-Arencibia, M - Sagredo, O - and Ramos, J.A. - 2008, April . Collected from:http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0303720708000051.
12 The prospects for cannabinoid therapies in basal ganglia disorders. British Journal of Pharmacology, 163-7, 1365–1378. Collected from:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3165947/.
12B Huntington’s Disease. - 2016, Feb. 24 . Medline-Plus. Fernández-Ruiz, J - Moreno-Martet, M - Rodríguez-Cueto, C - Palomo-Garo, C - Gómez-Cañas, M - Valdeolivas, S - Guaza, C - Romero, J - Guzman, M - Mechoulam, R - and Ramos, J. A. - 2011 . Collected from:https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/huntingtonsdisease.html.
13 Huntington’s disease. - 2014, July 24 . Mayo Clinic. Collected from:http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/huntingtons-disease/basics/definition/con-20030685.
14 Cannabidiol-CBD: a promising drug for neurodegenerative disorders? CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics, 15-1, 65-75.Iuvone, T - Esposito, G - De Filippis, D - Scuderi, C - and Steardo, L. - 2009, Winter . Collected from:http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1755-5949.2008.00065.x/full.
15 The alleviation of motor hyperactivity and neurochemical deficits by endocannabinoid uptake inhibition in a rat model of Huntington’s disease..... Synapse, 44-1, 23-35. Latres-Becker, I - Hansen, H.H - Berrendero, F - De Miguel, R - Pérez-Rosado, A - Manzanares, J - Ramos, J.A - & Fernández-Ruiz, J. - 2002, April . Collected from:http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/syn.10054/pdf.
16 Endocannabinoid system in Huntington’s disease. Current Pharmaceutical Design, 14-23, 2317-25. Pazos, M.R - Sagredo, O - and Fernández-Ruiz, J. - 2008 . Collected from:http://www.eurekaselect.com/67570/article.
17 CBD- Cannabidiol reduced the striatal atrophy caused three-nitropropionic acid in vivo by mechanisms independent of the activation of cannabinoid, vanilloid TRPV1 and adenosine A2A receptors. The European Journal of Neuroscience, 26-4, 843-51.Sagredo, O - Ramos, J.A - Decio, A - Mechoulam, R - and Fernández-Ruiz, J. - 2007, August . Collected from:http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/wol1/doi/10.1111/j.1460-9568.2007.05717.x/full.
18 Phyto-cannabinoids (from marijuana) and neuroprotection in basal ganglia disorders. Molecular Neurobiology, 36-1, 82-91. Sagredo, O - García-Arencibia, M - de Lago, E - Finetti, S - Decio, A - and Fernández-Ruiz, J. - 2007, August . Collected from:http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12035-007-0004-3.
19 The cannabinoid CB-2 receptor agonists protect the striatum against malonate toxicity: relevance for Huntington’s disease. Glia, 57-11, 1154–1167. Sagredo, O - González, S - Aroyo, I - Pazos, M. R - Benito, C - Lastres-Becker, I - Romero, J.P - tolon, R.M - Mechoulam, R - Brouillet, E - Romero, J - and Fernández-Ruiz, J. - 2009 . Collected from:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2706932/.
20 The neuroprotective effects of phytocannabinoid-based medicines in experimental models of Huntington’s disease..... Journal of Neuroscience Research, 89-9, 1509-18. Sagredo, O - Pazos, M.R - Satta, V - Ramos, J.A - Pertwee, R.G - and Fernández-Ruiz, J. - 2011, September . Collected from:http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/wol1/doi/10.1002/jnr.22682/full.
21 Phyto-cannabinoids (from marijuana):.... novel medicines for the treatment of Huntington’s disease. Recent Patents on CNS Drug Discovery, 7-1, 41-8. Sagredo, O - Pazos, M.R - Valdeolivas, S - and Fernández-Ruiz, J. - 2012, April . Collected from:http://www.eurekaselect.com/89300/article.
22 Sativex-like Combination of Phytocannabinoids is ....Neuroprotective in Malonate-Lesioned Rats.... an Inflammatory Model of Huntington’s Disease: Role of Cannabinoid-1 and Cannabinoid-2 Receptors. ACS Chemical Neuroscience, 3-5, 400–406.Valdeolivas, S - Satta, V - Pertwee, R. G - Fernández-Ruiz, J - and Sagredo, O. - 2012 . Collected from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3382456/.