Incontinence - Medical Marijuana Research Papers Worldwide - 2000- 2017

Incontinence - Medical Marijuana Research Papers Worldwide - 2000- 2017


"The following medical research undoubtedly shows that cannabis and its active ingredients, THC and CBD work very well to soothe bladder pain, inflammation and reduce urinary frequency, all of which confirm what many self-medicating patients already know." - MMJDoc




1  Marijuana-derived drug suppresses bladder pain in animal models. University of Pittsburgh Medical Center Press Release. May 21, 2006.

1 A potent synthetic analog of a metabolite of d9-THC...the principal active ingredient of marijuana effectively suppressed pain in hyper-sensitive bladder conditions including interstitial cystitis -IC... this is according to animal model study results presented today to the American Urological Association.
IP-751 is a potent anti-inflammatory and a powerful analgesic synthetic cannabinoid and its mechanisms of action are not fully described. However, since the drug is not soluble in water, its administration directly into the bladder is quite difficult.



"Incontinence, Interstitial cystitis is a difficult disease to treat, and not all treatments work well on all patients. Any new option we can give our patients to alleviate their painful symptoms is very important. - Marijuana represents an exciting new option. " -  Michael B. Chancellor, M.D., Professor of Urology (paraphrase)


1 Researchers at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine addressed the hydrophobic nature of IP 751 by introducing the drug into a liposome, a tiny sac surrounded by fatty acids, allowing for the drug to be introduced directly into the bladders of rat models of varying degrees of bladder inflammation. IP 751 significantly suppressed bladder overactivity in both animal models. Bladder overactivity is the underlying cause of irritation and pain in the bladder.


“I suggest to you, late or not late, the moment you have discovered that the mission of someone is to piss and shit on your dreams, keep them far away.” - Johnny Rodriguez (borrowed-changed)




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2 A preliminary controlled study to determine whether whole-plant cannabis extracts can improve intractable neurogenic symptoms. Wade et-al 2003. Clinical Rehabilitation 17: 21 to 29.

2 Pain relief associated with both d9-THC and Cannabinol-CBD was significantly superior to placebo. Impaired bladder control, muscle spasms and spasticity were improved by CME in some patients with these symptoms. Three patients had transient hypotension and intoxication with rapid initial dosing of d9-THC-containing CME.  Cannabis medicinal extracts can improve neurogenic symptoms unresponsive to standard treatments. Unwanted effects are predictable and generally well tolerated. Large scale studies are necessary and warranted to confirm this study's findings.



3 Brady et-al 2004. An open label pilot study of cannabis-based extracts for bladder dysfunction in advanced multiple sclerosis. Multiple Sclerosis 10: 425 to 433.

3 The majority of patients with multiple sclerosis -MS develop troublesome lower urinary tract symptoms - LUTS. Anecdotal reports suggest that cannabis may alleviate LUTS, and cannabinoid receptors in the bladder and nervous system are potential pharmacological targets. In an open trial we evaluated the safety, tolerability, dose range, and efficacy of two whole-plant extracts of Cannabis sativa in
patients with advanced MS and refractory LUTS.

3 Patients took extracts containing d9THC and cannabidiol (CBD; 2.5mg of each per spray) for eight weeks, followed by d9-THC-only (2.5mg THC per spray) for a further eight weeks, and then into a long-term extension. Assessments included urinary frequency and volume charts, incontinence pad weights; cystometry and visual analogue scales for secondary troublesome symptoms.

3 Twenty-one patients were recruited and data from fifteen were evaluated. Urinary urgency, the number and volume of incontinence episodes, frequency and nocturia all decreased significantly following treatment . However, daily total voided, catheterized and urinary incontinence pad weights also decreased significantly on both extracts. Patient self-assessment of pain, spasticity and quality of sleep improved significantly.

3 Wilcoxon’s signed rank test) with pain improvement continuing up to median of thirty five weeks. There were fewer troublesome side effects, suggesting that cannabis-based medicinal extracts are a safe and effective treatment for urinary and other problems in patients with advanced MS.


“When people try to rain on your parade...piss on theirs.” - Josh Stern

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4 The effect of cannabis on urge incontinence in patients with multiple sclerosis: a multicentre, randomized placebo-controlled trial. Freeman et-al 2006 The International Urogynecology Journal 17: 636-641.

4 All three groups showed a significant reduction, in adjusted episode rate from baseline to the end of treatment: cannabis extract, 38%; d9-THC, 33%; and placebo, 18%. Both active treatments showed significant effects over placebo (cannabis extract, The findings are suggestive of a clinical effect of cannabis on incontinence episodes in patients with MS. This is in contrast to the negative finding of the CAMS study, where no difference was seen in the primary outcome of spasticity.

4 Therapy insight: bladder dysfunction associated with multiple sclerosis. Kalsi & Fowler. 2005.  Nature Clinical Practice Neurology 2: 492 - 501.

4 Bladder dysfunction is a common problem for patients with multiple sclerosis - MS. The severity of symptoms often correlates with the degree of spinal cord involvement and, hence, the patient's general level of disability. The emphasis of management is now mainly medical and is increasingly offered by non urologists. Treatments can be highly effective, relieving patients of what are otherwise very troublesome symptoms that would compound their neurological disability.

4 This article gives an overview of the neural control of the bladder, followed by an explanation of the pathophysiology of detrusor overactivity secondary to neurological disease. A review of methods available for treating bladder dysfunction in multiple sclerosis - MS then follows. The treatment options for this disorder are largely medical and include established first-line measures such as anticholinergics, clean intermittent self-catheterization and the use of Desmopressin, as well as potential second-line agents, such as cannabinoids, intravesical vanilloids and intradetrusor botulinum neurotoxin type A. The diminishing role of surgical intervention is also discussed.


“I'm going to go pee. If the universe is bigger and stranger than I can imagine, it's best to meet it with an empty bladder.” - John Scalzi, Old Man's War


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