MRSA & ANTIBIOTIC ACTIVITY OF MARIJUANA - 6 RESEARCH PAPERS

Medical Marijuana Research Papers Worldwide - Cananbis Antibacterial Activities- 2000- 2017

Medical Marijuana Research Papers Worldwide - Cananbis Antibacterial Activities- 2000- 2017

 

Research Findings: All five of the main phyto-cannabinoids found in marijuana;: THC, CBD, CBG, CBC, and CBN were potent against bacteria.

 

1 MANY CANNABINOIDS OF MARIJUANA HAVE OUTSTANDING ANTI-BACTERIAL PROPERTIES

1 Antibacterial Phyto-cannabinoids from Cannabis Sativa: a Structure Study. Journal of Natural Products 71: 1427-1430. Appendino et-al. 2008.

1 Cannabis Sativa or Marijuana has long been known to contain antibiotic phyto-cannabinoids, whose potential to address antibiotic resistance has not yet been investigated. All five major phyto-cannabinoids: cannabidiol, cannabichromene, cannabigerol, d9-THC, and cannabinol demonstrated potent action against a type of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus -MRSA strains of current clinical relevance. Activity was remarkably tolerant to the nature of the prenyl moiety, to its relative position compared to the n-pentyl moiety- abnormal phyto-cannabinoids, and to carboxylation of the resorcinyl moiety - pre-cannabinoids.

1 Conversely, methylation and acetylation of the phenolic hydroxyls, esterification of the carboxylic group of pre-cannabinoids, and introduction of a second prenyl moiety were all detrimental for antibiotic activity. Taken together, these observations suggest that the prenyl moiety of phyto-cannabinoids serves mainly as a modulator of lipid attraction for the olivetol core, a per se poorly active antibiotic pharmacophore, while their high potency definitely suggests a specific, but yet elusive, mechanism of activity.

 

2 THERE ARE OTHER THINGS OTHER THAN CBD AND THC IN CANNABIS THAT HAVE ANTIBACTERIAL PROPERTIES

2 Non-cannabinoid constituents from a high potency cannabis sativa strain. Radwan et-al. 2008 Phytochemistry 69: 26727 - 2633. Appendino et-al. 2008. op. cit.

2 Six new non-cannabinoid constituents were isolated from a high potency Cannabis sativa L. strain:

(1) 5-acetoxy-6-geranyl-3-n-pentyl-1,4-benzoquinone

(2), 4,5-dihydroxy-2,3,6-trimethoxy-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene

(3), 4-hydroxy-2,3,6,7-tetramethoxy-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene

(4) 4,7-dimethoxy-1,2,5-trihydroxyphenanthrene ,

(5) cannflavin C

(6).beta-sitosteryl-3-O-beta-d-glucopyranoside-2'-O-palmitate

2 Additionally, five known compounds, alpha-cannabispiranol, chrysoeriol, 6-prenylapigenin, cannflavin A and beta-acetyl cannabispiranol were identified. Some isolates displayed weak to strong antimicrobial, antileishmanial, antimalarial and anti-oxidant activities. Compounds 2-4 were inactive as analgesics.

 

3 MANY KINDS OF CANNABINOIDS IN CANNABIS FEND OFF HARMFUL BACTERIA IN MAN

3 Marijuana is a source of antibacterial substances that are potent against ….

3 Pharmacists and chemists have found another use for the multipurpose cannabis as a source of antibiotic chemicals for multidrug resistant bacteria. Ironically, inhaling cannabis is known to damage the lung's ability to fend off invading pathogens, but the ingredients in cannabis, particularly the phyto-cannabinoids, have antiseptic characteristics.

3 Although scattered research has been conducted since the 1950s, no comprehensive study existed that relates the structure of phyto-cannabinoids with antibiotic activity. Giovanni Appendino, Simon Gibbons, and coworkers attempted to remedy that problem by examining the activity of five common phyto-cannabinoids and their synthetic derivatives.

3 Five of the most common phyto-cannabinoids have anti-bacterial properties.

 

3 All five phyto-cannabinoids: d9THC, Cannabidiol-CBD, CBG, CBC, and CBN were potent against bacteria. Notably, they performed well against bacteria that were known to be multidrug resistant, like the strains of MRSA that plagued U.K. hospitals. Cannabidiol-CBD and CBG have the most potential for consumer use because they are nonpsychotropic.

3 Besides identifying antibiotic capability, the researchers wanted to figure out why these phyto-cannabinoids are so good at killing bacteria. They obviously are very effective at specifically targeting some vital process in the bacteria. Unfortunately, even after extensive work at modifying the phyto-cannabinoids and comparing their activities, that targeting mechanism remains a mystery. The scientists were able to figure out that the position of the n-pentyl chain - orange relative to the terpenoid moiety-blue serves to control lipid attraction.

3 These phyto-cannabinoids are promising enough to warrant rigorous clinical trials. They are applied as topical antiseptics, biodegradable antibiotic compounds for cosmetics, and systematic antibiotic agents.



 

4 RESEARCH SHOWS MARIJUANA'S EFFICACY IN MANY DISEASES- INCLUDING INFECTIONS CONDITIONS

 

4 Cannabis Compounds Reduce Multi-Drug Resistant Infections

 

"Although the use of phyto-cannabinoids as systemic antibiotic agents awaits rigorous clinical trials, … their topical application to reduce skin colonization by MRSA seems promising. … Cannabis sativa … represents an interesting source of antibiotic agents to address the problem of multidrug resistance in MRSA and other pathogenic bacteria."

 

4 “Research into use of whole cannabis extracts and multi-phyto-cannabinoid compounds has provided the scientific rationale for medical marijuana’s efficacy in treating some of the most troubling diseases mankind now faces, including infectious diseases such as the flu and HIV, autoimmune diseases such as Lou Gehrig’s Disease-ALS , multiple sclerosis, arthritis, and diabetes, neurological conditions such as Alzheimer’s, stroke and brain injury, as well as numerous forms of cancer.

 

4 One common element of these diseases is that patients often suffer extended hospital stays, risking the development of various Staphyloccus infections including MRSA. A topical, whole-cannabis treatment for these infections is a functional complement to our cannabis extract-based lozenge.” - Dr. Melamede

4 Investigators at Italy's Universita del Piemonte Orientale and Britain's University of London, School of Pharmacy reported in the Journal of Natural Products that five phyto-cannabinoids - d9THC, Cannabidiol-CBD, CBG, CBC, and CBN - "demonstrated potent antibiotic activity" and "exceptional" antibiotic activity against two epidemic MRSA occurring in UK hospitals.

 

4 Cannabis Science, Inc. is at the forefront of medical marijuana research and development. The Company works with world authorities on phytocannabinoid science targeting critical illnesses, and adheres to scientific methodologies to develop, produce, and commercialize phytocannabinoid-based pharmaceutical products. In sum, we are dedicated to the creation of cannabis-based medicines, both with and without psychoactive characteristics, to treat disease and the symptoms of disease, as well as for general health maintenance.


 

5 CANNABIS CANNABINOIDS HAVE POTENTIAL BUT FURTHER WORK IS REQUIRED

 

5 ANTIBACTERIAL CANNABINOIDS FROM CANNABIS SATIVA: A STRUCTURE−ACTIVITY STUDY

5 There are currently considerable challenges with the treatment of infections caused by strains of clinically relevant bacteria that demonstrate multidrug-resistance - MDR, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and the recently emerged and extremely drug-resistantMycobacterium tuberculosis XDR-TB.

5 New antibiotics are therefore urgently needed, but only one new class of antibiotic has been introduced in the last 30 years. Despite the excellent antibiotic activity of multiple herbs-plants secondary metabolites and the ability of some of them to modify the resistance associated with multidrug-resistance strains and efflux pumps, plants are still a substantially untapped source of antimicrobial agents.

5 The antibiotic phyto-cannabinoid chemotype is poorly defined, as is the molecular mechanism of its activity. Since multiple simple phenols demonstrate antimicrobial characteristics, it does not seem unreasonable to assume that the resorcinol moiety of phyto-cannabinoids serves as the antibiotic pharmacophore, with the alkyl, terpenoid, and carboxylic appendices modulating its activity.

5 To gain insight into the microbiocidal phyto-cannabinoid pharmacophore, we have investigated how the nature of the terpenoid moiety, its relative position compared to the n-pentyl group, and the effect of carboxylation of the resorcinyl moiety is translated biologically, assaying the major phyto-cannabinoids and a selection of their precursors and regioisomeric analogues against drug-resistant bacteria of clinical relevance.

5 Within these, we have selected a panel of clinically relevant Staphylococcus aureus strains that includes the infamous EMRSA-15, one of the main epidemic methicillin-resistant strains, and SA-1199B, a multidrug-resistant strain that overexpresses the NorA efflux mechanism, the best characterized antibiotic efflux pump in this species. SA-1199B also possesses a gyrase mutation that, in addition to NorA, confers a high level of resistance to certain fluoroquinolones. A macrolide-resistant strain a tetracycline-resistant line overexpressing the TetK efflux pump and a standard laboratory strain completed the bacterial panel.

5 Given their nonpsychotropic profiles, Cannabidiol-CBD and CBG seemed especially promising, and were selected for further structure−activity studies. Thus, acetylation and methylation of their phenolic hydroxyls were both detrimental for activity in accordance with the essential role of the phenolic hydroxyls in the antibiotic characteristics. However, in light of the potent activity of the monophenols CBC, d9THC , and CBN, it was surprising that monomethylation of the diphenols Cannabidiol-CBD and CBG was so poorly tolerated in terms of antibiotic activity.

5 Summarily, these observations demonstrate that the phytocannabinoid antibiotic chemotype is remarkably tolerant to structural modification of the terpenoid moiety and its positional relationship with the n-pentyl chain, suggesting that these residues serve mainly as modulators of lipid attraction, and therefore cellular biochemical availability. This view was substantiated by the marked decrease of activity observed when the antibiotic activity of CBG was compared to that of its polar analogue carmagerol.

5 The findings against the resistant strains validate this suggestion, and it is probable that the increased hydrophilicity caused by the addition of two hydroxyls greatly reduces the cellular biochemical availability by substantially lowering membrane permeability. Conversely, the addition of a further prenyl moiety, as in the bis-prenylated phyto-cannabinoid while increasing membrane solubility, may result in poorer aqueous solubility and therefore a lower intracellular concentration, similarly leading to a substantial loss of activity. A single non functionalized terpenyl moiety seems therefore ideal in terms of lipophilicity balance for the antibiotic activity of olivetol derivatives. The great potency of phyto-cannabinoids suggests a specific interaction with a bacterial target, whose identity is, however, still elusive.

5 There are currently considerable challenges with the treatment of infections caused by strains of clinically relevant bacteria that demonstrate multidrug-resistance, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and the recently emerged and extremely drug-resistantMycobacterium tuberculosis XDR-TB.

5 New antibiotics are therefore urgently needed, but only one new class of antibiotic has been introduced in the last 30 years. Despite the excellent antibiotic activity of multiple herbs-plants secondary metabolites and the ability of some of them to modify the resistance associated with multidrug-resistance strains and efflux pumps,plants are still a substantially untapped source of antimicrobial agents.

5 The antibiotic phyto-cannabinoid chemotype is poorly defined, as is the molecular mechanism of its activity. Since several simple phenols demonstrate antimicrobial characteristics, it does not seem unreasonable to assume that the resorcinol moiety of phyto-cannabinoids serves as the antibiotic pharmacophore, with the alkyl, terpenoid, and carboxylic appendices modulating its activity.

5 To gain insight into the microbiocidal phyto-cannabinoid pharmacophore, we have investigated how the nature of the terpenoid moiety, its relative position compared to the n-pentyl group, and the effect of carboxylation of the resorcinyl moiety are translated biologically, assaying the major phyto-cannabinoids and a selection of their precursors and regioisomeric analogues against drug-resistant bacteria of clinical relevance.

5 Within these, we have selected a panel of clinically relevant Staphylococcus aureus strains that includes the infamous EMRSA-15, one of the main epidemic methicillin-resistant strains, and SA-1199B, a multidrug-resistant strain that overexpresses the NorA efflux mechanism, the best characterized antibiotic efflux pump in this species. SA-1199B also possesses a gyrase mutation that, in addition to NorA, confers a high level of resistance to certain fluoroquinolones. A macrolide-resistant strain a tetracycline-resistant line overexpressing the TetK efflux pump and a standard laboratory strain completed the bacterial panel.

5 Given their nonpsychotropic profiles, Cannabidiol-CBD and CBG seemed especially promising, and were selected for further structure−activity studies. Thus, acetylation and methylation of their phenolic hydroxyls were both detrimental for activity, in accordance with the essential role of the phenolic hydroxyls in the antibiotic characteristics. However, in light of the potent activity of the monophenols CBC, d9THC, and CBN , it was surprising that monomethylation of the diphenols Cannabidiol-CBD and CBG was so poorly tolerated in terms of antibiotic activity.

5 In summary, these observations demonstrate that the phyto-cannabinoid antibiotic chemotype is remarkably tolerant to structural modification of the terpenoid moiety and its positional relationship with the n-pentyl chain, suggesting that these residues serve mainly as modulators of lipid attraction, and therefore cellular biochemical availability. This view was substantiated by the marked decrease of activity observed when the antibiotic activity of CBG (3b) was compared to that of its polar analogue carmagerol.

5 The findings against the resistant strains validate this suggestion, and it is probable that the increased hydrophilicity caused by the addition of two hydroxyls greatly reduces the cellular biochemical availability by substantially lowering membrane permeability. Conversely, the addition of a further prenyl moiety, as in the bis-prenylated phyto-cannabinoid while increasing membrane solubility, may result in poorer aqueous solubility and therefore a lower intracellular concentration, similarly leading to a substantial loss of activity.

5 A single non-functionalized terpenyl moiety seems therefore ideal in terms of lipophilicity balance for the antibiotic activity of olivetol derivatives. The great potency of phyto-cannabinoids suggests a specific interaction with a bacterial target, whose identity is, however, still elusive.



 

6 CANNABIS AND HERBS REVIEW FOR THEIR ANTIBIOTIC ACTIVITY.

6 Antibacterial Characteristics of Hemp and Other Fibrous herbs-plants

 

6 Intervention against pathogenic bacteria using natural herbs-plant material has a long history. Plant materials also have been widely used as fillers and/or reinforcers in polymer composites. Some natural fibre plants, such as hemp, are regarded to possess antibiotic activity against a wide range of pathogenic bacteria. Innovative applications can be explored if they are incorporated in polymer composites.

6 This review aims to compile the relevant inquiries on antibiotic action of hemp and other fibre herbs-plants such as jute, flax, kenaf, sisal, and bamboo. The antibiotic character might be contributed from phyto-cannabinoids, alkaloids, other bioactive compounds, or phenolic compounds of lignin. This review is intended to encourage utilization of hemp and other natural fibre herbs-plants in value-added diversified products. Some potential applications are also discussed.  

 

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Labels: mrsa antibiotic antibacterial cbg cbc cbd thc cannabinoids staphlococcus staph infection.

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